Vienišasis modernizmas: Juliaus Juzeliūno akordų teorijos pėdsakais

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Vienišasis modernizmas: Juliaus Juzeliūno akordų teorijos pėdsakais
Alternative Title:
Lonely Modernism: following the traces of Julius Juzeliūnas’ chord theory
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2019, t. 95, p. 171-197. Ar buvo tylusis modernizmas Lietuvoje?
Julius Juzeliūnas; Jonas Kazlauskas; Algirdas Julius Greimas; Modernizmas; Akordų teorija; Sutartinės.
Julius Juzeliūnas; Jonas Kazlauskas; Algirdas Julius Greimas; Modernism; Chord theory; Sutartinė.
Summary / Abstract:

LTKompozitoriaus Juliaus Juzeliūno (1916–2001) mokslinė studija Akordo sandaros klausimu (1972) buvo vienintelė teorinė refleksija empiriniame sovietmečio lietuviškojo muzikinio modernizmo okeane. Ji galėjo tapti „lietuviškojo serializmo“ ir šiuolaikinės lietuvių muzikos kalbos teoriniu pagrindu, leidžiančiu logiškai ir koherentiškai susieti modernų mąstymą su tautine tradicija, tačiau ji pasirodė netinkamu – tautinio atgimimo – laiku, kai svarbesniu tapo ne teorinis, o emocinis kūrybos pagrindas. Šiame tekste komparatyvistiniu metodu bandoma įvertinti ir įvardyti šios studijos universalumą ir vietą tuometiniame lietuviškos muzikos kontekste. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe balance between tradition and innovation was the vital axis around which all of the 20th century Lithuanian music revolved. The composer Juozas Gruodis, who unfortunately succumbed to the early postwar repressions both spiritually and physically, had spent his interwar years searching for the perfect balance between those two forces. It thus seems natural that his student Julius Juzeliūnas emerged in Lithuanian music as a successor of his teacher’s idea of embodying the national origins in contemporary musical language, rather than developing his personal compositional approach. Juzeliūnas was the first in postwar Lithuania to not only theoretically reflect on his personal musical practice, but also to propose a groundwork for a collective musical language—a broader musical tendency that, he imagined, was applicable even to the music of other nations as well. Defended as a doctoral thesis, his treatise On the Structure of the Chord (1972), is the first real attempt at a practice-based theoretical inquiry into the possible forms of compositional thinking that would organically wed contemporary sensibility with the folk tradition. Like his Western precursors, Juzeliūnas used the principle of combination. He conceived a new constructive principle by combining pre-existing things. Just as Anton Webern had joined the horizontal with the vertical, thus proposing a “synthesis of all the preceding musical techniques”, Juzeliūnas combined the tonal system with the modal one on the grounds that “classical harmonic norms contravene specific manifestations of national culture.” The dodecaphonic legacy was undoubtedly important to Juzeliūnas.His entire theory seems to have been constructed in relation to the twelvetone system, approving some of its structural laws and rejecting others. The abolition of the tonic supports was a major aim for dodecaphony, which combined the polyphony that originated from the church modes with homophony, while Juzeliūnas’ model, a cross-linking of the constructive elements of ancient Lithuanian monody, polyphony of the multi-part sutartinės (Lit. national glee songs), and dodecaphony, retained the principal importance of the tonic gravity. It might even be the central element of this theory: the composer doubled it by using the structural principle of sutartinės – “the melodic cells of the individual voices in sutartinės develop in different diatonic scales,” hence “sutartinės are based on the principle of a unified dualism and involve no movements toward a single tonal centre.” As “the structures of the vocal melodies in _sutartinės_ form the clusters of support tones, and each sutartinė has a pair of such clusters”, the composer concluded: “the interplay between the two clusters of support tones produce the effect of a double tonic. Thus, with regard to the relationships of the melodic lines in vocal sutartinės, they should be properly called double tonic or bitonic rather than polytonal or polyharmonic.” This binary construct—the bitonic principle discovered by the composer—became the pivot of his entire theory. He perceived it as that which shapes the structure, logic, and dynamic of the sonic material. Juzeliūnas treated the supporting tone complexes as independent structural “modes” which “help organise the tonic centres and retain close ties with modal thinking.” They provide the base for the whole thematic material: “used according to the principle of non-repetition, the order of the modal shifts becomes the driving force behind the whole harmonic sequence.In both Lithuanian modal music and polyphonic sutartinės, the examples of sonic models that acquired maximum levels of refinement after the centuries of polishing, Juzeliūnas found a mechanism for the articulation of his own musical ideas, and simultaneously a platform for the development of a contemporary musical language. “Polyphonic” doubling of the tonal supports allowed him to construct the “logic of acoustic intensity” of the sonic material, and therefore create complex timbral spaces. [From the publication]

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2020-04-14 17:39:51
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