Tarmės - vienas is etnografinių regionų kertinių akmenų

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Tarmės - vienas is etnografinių regionų kertinių akmenų
Alternative Title:
Dialects - one of the the cornerstones of ethnographic regions
In the Journal:
Etninė kultūra. 2015, Nr. 9, p. 86-89
Keywords:
LT
Archajinės tarmės ypatybės; Fonetiniai požymiai; Lietuvių tarmės; Patarmė; Tarmių klasifikacija; Tarmių metai (2013); Žemaičių tarmė.
EN
Archaic features of dialect; Classification od dialects; Lithuanian dialects; Phonetic features; Samogitian dialect; Subdialect; The Year of Dialects (2013).
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje išryškinamas vienas svarbiausių etnografinių regionų požymių - tarmės. Parodomas lietuvių kalbos tarmių išskirtinumas ir unikalumas pasaulyje: jų gausa, skirtingumas, išlaikymas archajiškų ypatybių, garsų, formų iki pat šių dienų. Primenama apie ypatingos reikšmės Lietuvių kalbos instituto vykdytą projektą „Šiuolaikiniai geolingvistikos tyrimai Lietuvoje“, kuris parodė šiandieninį lietuvių kalbos tarmių gyvybingumą ir išaugusį jų prestižą. Šiandien drąsiai galima teigti, jog LR Seimo sprendimas 2013 metus paskelbti Tarmių metais pasiteisino su kaupu. Per tuos metus įvyko daugybė nuostabių, prasmingų renginių, popiečių, vakaronių, susitikimų, diskusijų, paskaitų, konferencijų. Visa tai leidžia daryti išvadą, kad lietuvių kalbos tarmės šiandien yra gyvos, stiprios ir jų prestižas yra pastebimai išaugęs. Baigiamojoje Tarmių metų konferencijoje Anykščiuose buvo priimta svarbi rezoliucija, kurioje vienas iš punktų skelbia, jog būtina siekti regionų įteisinimo Lietuvoje pagal istorinius, etninius, kultūrinius ir kalbinius tapatumus. Tam nemažai galėtų ir turėtų pasitarnauti kitas svarbus LR Seimo sprendimas, skelbiantis 2015 metus Etnografinių regionų metais. Etnografinių regionų vienas svarbiausių požymių, kertinių akmenų yra tarmės. Prigimtinė tarmė yra gimtoji kalba (Aliūkaitė 2013:9). Kalba yra kiekvienos tautos, kultūros, viso buvimo pamatų pamatas. Kiek ir kokio stiprumo tų kalbų, tarmių turime - tiek yra stipri ir Lietuva. Tarmių turtus turime saugoti ir puoselėti, kaip elgiasi visi civilizuoti kraštai. O mes tarp tų kraštų dar esame ir išskirtiniai, nes pasaulyje nedaug rasime tokių vietų, kur toks nedidelis plotas kaip Lietuva turėtų tiek daug ir tokių skirtingų kalbų, tarmių, kurios iki pat šių dienų yra išlaikiusios daug unikalių, savitų, archajiškų, senesnių kalbos formų, ypatybių. [Iš leidinio]

ENDialects are one of the main features charactrizing ethnographic regions. The dialect a person has heard and has been using since his birth is his native language. Language is the cornerstone of national culture and a precondition for the nation's existance in general. Lithuania's strength lies in the richness of its language and dialects. Every civilised nation should implement dialect preservation policy and foster the richness of dialects. Our country is unique - there are not many countries in the world where a big variety of dialects existed in such a small territory. According to the classification of Lithuanian language dialects, worked out by A. Girdenis and Z. Zinkevičius, 14 dialects have been identified in the areas within clearly defined boundaries: the Kretingiškiai and Telšiškiai dialects of Northern Samogitian (Low Lithuanian), the Varniškiai and Raseiniškiai dialects of Southern Samogitian, the Kauniškiai ir Šiauliškiai dialects of Western Samogitian, the Southern High Lithuanian (Aukštaičių) dialect, the Panevėžiškiai dialect of Eastern High Lithuanian, the dialects of Širvintos, Anykščiai, Kupiškis, Utena, Vilnius. The list is not complete because several subdialects and subsubdialects exist within each dialect. Linguists assume that there were over 100 subsubdialects in Lithuania, one for each parish. A matter of significance is that Lithuanian language dialects have retained many unique, archaic features, sounds, forms until the present day although they have disappeared from standard language. Some are worth mentioning. Long ago, instead of long о the older sound *ä was used in standard Lithuanian and in many dialects throughout Lithuania. Good evidence of that is the first Lithuanian book written by Martynas Mažvydas. This feature of old Lithuanian has been retained in the Uteniškiai dialect of Eastern High Lithuanian until the present day.In a significant part of Southern Samogitia, instead of the nasal vowels q, f their older version with the consonant n is still being used and pronounced an / on, cn / en. Long ago there were no such sounds as č, d: in Lithuanian, instead, the combinations *tj, *dj were used. Presently, in some forms of words, instead of č, d: the combination of the consonants t, d, rather close to the old ones, are being used in Samogitian. Quite a big number of distinctive, archaic features have been also retained in morphology and syntax. The dual number has been also retained in some dialects. The dual number for verbs has been retained in the Kauniškiai dialect of Western High Lithuanian but it is most often used in Samogitian. The dual number not only for verbs but also for pronouns, nouns, adjectives, even participles, has been retained. Speaking about word formation. some suffixes, such as die. -ike, -otis, -uitis are being specifically used and prefered in Samogitian. Now specific compound tenses of verbs (i.e. forms between the progressive and the perfect tenses) with supporting words žemėn, lauk, šalin, lygiai, kietai to express actions that will be soon over are being used in Samogitian. Two locative cases are being used in most dialects of Southern and Eastern High Lithuanian: inessive - to express internal location and illative - to express motion into something. The supine put after verbs of motion has been retained and is still being used to express purpose in the the Anykštėnai ir Kupiškėnai dialects of Eastern High Lithuanian. Localised vocabulary characteristic of regional dialects is very interesting and rich. In general, vocabulary is the most dynamic language element so it is understandable that spread of variuos words and their popularity varies. Presently many words that are being used only in one or another dialect, subdialcct or subsubdialect, have not come into common usage.In 2013 The Year of Dialects ended and the project Modern Research of Geolinguistics in Lithuania: The Optimisation of the Network of Points and Interactive Spread of Dialectal Information conducted by the Institute of the Lithuanian Language was implemented. In the course of the project 735 atlas points in Lithuania and 15 outside its territory have been examined and re-examined and digital audio recordings of about 5 000 hours have been collected. The research allows to firmly state that Lithuanian language dialects are alive and valued in the early 21st century. The majority of the population undarstands the banefits of knowing and using one or another dialect, like any other communication system, for communication purposes. Compared to uniformity, diversity arouses more interest in the world and among others, increases the nation's visibility, enriches its people and brings them closer together. One of the cornerstones of the Lithuanian language is its linguistic variation and dialect diversity, the richness of dialects is and will always be its inexhaustable source. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1648-6072
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Updated:
2020-04-18 07:38:22
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