Lyčių segregacija užimtumo ir švietimo srityse: lyginamoji analizė

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lyčių segregacija užimtumo ir švietimo srityse: lyginamoji analizė
Alternative Title:
Gender segregation in the labor market and education: comparative analysis
In the Journal:
Lyčių studijos ir tyrimai. 2015, 13, p. 55-73
Dalyvavimas darbo rinkoje; Dalyvavimas švietimo sistemoje; Lyčių segregacija.
Gender segregation in the labour market and education; Men; STEM.
Summary / Abstract:

LTLyčių segregacijos darbo rinkoje ir švietimo srityje problemos analizei buvo skirtas 2015 m. rugsėjo 29–30 d. Danijoje vykęs seminaras, kuriame daugiausia dėmesio skirta dviem esminiams šios problemos aspektams: skatinamas vyrų pedagogų dalyvavimas ankstyvojo ugdymo ir priežiūros srityje (ECEC) ir moterų bei mergaičių dalyvavimas mokslo, technologijų, inžinerijos ir matematikos srityse (STEM). Seminare dalyvavo 17 Europos šalių (tarp jų ir Lietuvos) atstovai.1 Europos Komisijos tyrimo dėl lyčių segregacijos Europos darbo rinkoje pristatymas sudaro galimybes palyginti ES valstybių narių situaciją. Pristatymas atkreipė dėmesį, kad lyčių segregacija profesijų pasaulyje linkusi mažėti, bet tai vyksta lėtai, o kai kuriose šalyse ši segregacija net didėja. Taip vyksta todėl, kad dar yra daug stereotipų, sociokultūrinių mechanizmų, kurių įtaka šiuo požiūriu yra stipriausia. Segregacija yra negatyvus reiškinys, nes ji susiaurina užimtumo ir įsidarbinimo galimybes, sustiprina lyčių stereotipus, riboja prieigą prie aukštesnio lygio darbo vietų, atspindi nevienodą pasiskirstymą neapmokamo darbo ir šeimos pareigų srityje, sudaro palankias aplinkybes nuvertinti moterų darbą. Pabrėžtina, kad paminėti rodikliai atskleidžia tik dalį visos padėties ir todėl pristato naują požiūrį į šią situaciją. [Iš leidinio]

ENThis paper focuses on the issue of gender segregation in the labour market and education, with particular focus on promoting male pedagogues in early childhood education and care (ECEC) and women and girls in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in 16 European countries. Good practice Men employed in kindergartens of Denmark and a general initiative to stimulate STEM participation driven by the National Platform for Science and Technology and a specific initiative to increase participation of women in STEM has been implemented in the Netherlands. In Denmark case, five pilot projects in different municipalities to attract more male pedagogues offered children a broader palette of adult identification opportunities. It contributed to a more varied picture of men and what men can do. A more diverse work environment contributed to a good working environment. Particular barriers to attracting men into female dominated fields exist in most countries. In the Netherlands, the most significant element of the initiative was its focus across all levels of education – primary, secondary and tertiary. Using a systemic approach it included students, parents, teachers, school guidance counsellors and schools themselves. The aim of the initiative was to shift perceptions and combat stereotypes, inform girls about STEM possibilities and introduce role models, and train parents and teachers in gender awareness. Despite formal legislation and declarations Lithuania encounters problems in the field of gender equality. Implementation of declared ideas and legal commitments in practice falls short of the level which is sought to be achieved. This is reflected in key indicators. Data of the World Economic Forum proves reverse trends of gender equality advancement in Lithuania which dropped down from position 14 in 2007 to 28 in 2013.In the EIGE-developed Gender Equality Index, Lithuania is far below average on gender equality in Europe and from 43.6 in 2005 dropped to 40.2 in 2012. According to EIGE data, Lithuania joined the group of Member States (UK, Croatia, Slovakia, Romania) where the Gender Equality Index dropped during both time periods. The number of pedagogues in pre-school establishments has slightly increased despite the fact that Lithuanian population decline and emigration has lowered the number of future pedagogues. Nevertheless, the number of pedagogues has been fractionally rising: 2010 – 99.3 %, 2011 – 98,7 %, 2012 – 99.3 %, 2013 – 99.6 %. According to the Labour Force survey data for the year 2014, human health and social work, where women make up 85.5% of all persons employed, remains the most feminine field of activity. More than 71% of these pedagogues have higher education. The proportion of women in higher education institutions is bigger than in social work (89%). Vertical segregation of the labour market is described by the ‘glass ceiling’ metaphor, which stands for obstacles limiting women advancement in professional careers in STEM. Negative demographic trends and a drop of the proportion of students choosing science and technologies are likely to have a very negative impact on absolute numbers in the years to come. In 2014, according to the survey on research and development (R&D), the number of women with a scientific degree engaging in R&D (in the general government and higher education sectors) totaled 49.5% of all researchers (with a scientific degree), of men – 50.5%. Male researchers with a scientific degree accounted for a larger proportion in technical (69.8%) and physical (66.4%) sciences, while female researchers with a scientific degree – in social sciences and humanities (61%and 59.1% respectively) and biomedical (natural) sciences (55.9%).In the context of economic globalisation, gender inequality becomes even more intense because professional growth conditions are more acceptable to the social group of men, which is characterised by flexibility and mobility by reason of stereotypical views of gender roles. Meanwhile women’s functions are inseparable from family life and are directly related to care and guardianship. The stereotypical attitude to gender roles is still deeply rooted in society and is seen as a major challenge in seeking to resolve resulting socio-economic problems. For solving these problems some minor initiatives have been undertaken. The trends in most European countries are generally similar: low rates of participation by men as male pedagogues at pre-school level, with small numbers studying in entry programmes to the field; low pay and low status of female dominated jobs as a barrier to addressing segregation, young women are better educated than young men but young men continue dominating in such fields as computing, science, engineering and technology despite increasing participation of young women, over-representation of men teaching these subjects, young women increasingly predominating in mathematics and architecture, labour market segregation with men concentrated in STEM areas and women in such areas as health and education, and vertical segregation with men concentrated in management positions, even in female dominated areas. Progress has been made in developing policies, introducing legislation and signing international agreements. However, when it comes to actual implementation will and/or capacity is lacking and the reality on the ground does not change. Keywords: gender segregation in the labour market and education, men, STEM. [From the publication]

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2019-07-21 20:48:59
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