Lietuvos kolektyvizacija 1947-1952 m. : VKP(b) CK sprendimai ir kontrolė

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvos kolektyvizacija 1947-1952 m: VKP(b) CK sprendimai ir kontrolė
In the Journal:
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Kolektyvizacijos politika; LKP CK.
Kolektyvizacijos politika; LKP CK.
Summary / Abstract:

LTRemiantis Rusijos valstybinio socialinės politinės istorijos archyvo dokumentais ir kitais šaltiniais, straipsnyje siekiama atskleisti mažai žinomus VKP(b) CK ir LKP(b) CK kolektyvizacijos politikos Lietuvoje aspektus parodant nuolatinio VKP(b) CK dėmesio ir kontrolės sulaukusius klausimus ir priimtus sprendimus bei bendradarbiavimą su LKP(b) CK. [Iš leidinio]

ENBased on the documents in the Russian State Archive of Social-Political History and other sources, the article attempts to reveal the little-known aspects of the policy of collectivisation in Lithuania of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) and Lithuanian CP(B) CC; it also tries to demonstrate the constant attention paid to some issues by the CC of the All-Union CP and decisions it took, and its collaboration with the CC of the LCP(B). In Lithuania, the CC of the All-Union CP(B) led by Stalin essentially replicated the 1929-1932 stages of the collectivisation in the Soviet Union. The means chosen for the modernisation or alienation of the rural population was not to start farms but to impoverish and repress it, which was the worst Stalinist way of the alienation of the countryside. The collectivisation process can be divided into some stages that were of a different nature. The first stage (April 1947-February 1948) was based on the principle of volunteering, which failed. The All-Union CP(B) CC and LCP(B) CC leadership started to implement collectivisation according to the Leninist principles of volunteering that did not prove to be useful and the process stopped. The second stage (March 1948-January 1949) was the activation period of the collectivisation process. During the period the CC of the Lithuanian CP exerted pressure on the local authorities to accelerate collectivisation and it was linked to the first mass deportation of peasants at the end of May 1948, when well-to-do farmers were exiled. The initiative to speed up collectivisation shown by Antanas Sniečkus was not authorised by Moscow and the CC of the All-Union CP apparatus did not approve of it. Stalin was not interested in the first and second collectivisation stages; therefore, the control was minimal. The third stage (January 1949-1952) saw the beginning and completion of the forced universal collectivisation.The crucial 18 January 1949 decision to implement the universal collectivisation and mass deportations of the peasantry was taken by Stalin and the first secretaries of the Communist Party of the Baltic republics who had to go to Moscow. During this period, the high speed of collectivisation led to the emergence of many fictitious collective farms, which became the focus of the constant attention of various inspectorates of the AllUnion CP CC. Between 1949 and 1952, at least five groups of various rank inspectors visited Lithuania and assessed the state of the collective farms and the collectivisation process. The conclusions they made served as the basis for taking decisions about all kinds of assistance to improve the deteriorating state of agriculture in the entire Soviet Union. The constant control and aid on the part of the CC of the All-Union CP helped the Soviet Lithuanian leadership to implement the “great break”, i.e. the peasants’ alienation when the structure of the rural community life was broken, the ownership, economic and social relationship underwent great change. The collective farm system essentially violated the conditions of the rural lifestyle, deprived people of material motivation and initiative, breaking traditional relations and ties of the rural communities. Collectivisation destroyed the last niche of the free market not controlled by the state - individual peasants’ farms, which accelerated the migration of the rural population to cities. [From the publication]

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2020-11-19 14:12:01
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