Vilniaus Žemutinės pilies Lietuvos didžiųjų kunigaikščių rūmų papuošalų tyrimai

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Vilniaus Žemutinės pilies Lietuvos didžiųjų kunigaikščių rūmų papuošalų tyrimai
Alternative Title:
Research of jewellery found at the Palace of the grand dukes of Lithuania in the Vilnius Lower castle
In the Journal:
Chronicon Palatii Magnorum Ducum Lithuaniae. 2018, vol. 4 (2014-2016), p. 345-351
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Brangakmeniai; Emalė; Juodmasė; Lydmetaliai; Metalo lydiniai; Papuošalai; Vilniaus Žemutinė pilis; Vilnius; 14 amžius; 15 amžius; 16 amžius; 17 amžius; Žemutinė pilis; 14-17 cent.; Enamel; Jewellery; Jewellery found; Lithuania; Lower castle; Metal alloys; Niello; Palace of Grand Duke; Precious stones; Soldering metals; Vilnius; Vilnius Lower Castle.
Archeologiniai tyrinėjimai / Archaeological investigations; Brangakmeniai; Emalė; Juodmasė; Lydmetaliai; Metalo lydiniai; Papuošalai; Pilys. Tvirtovės. Bastėjos / Castles. Bastions. Fortresses.
Summary / Abstract:

ENThis article presents initial research of archaeological artefacts - jewellery items - found at the Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in the Vilnius Lower Castle, conducted in cooperation with applied science laboratories (the Pranas Gudynas Centre for Restoration, the Lithuanian Assay Office’s Gemstone Research and Assaying and Hallmarking laboratories, and Vilnius University’s Faculty of Chemistry laboratories). The metal alloys, soldering metals, enamel, niello and jewellery materials were all examined. The XRF method was applied to study the metals, enamel and niello, using the Spectro Midex X-ray fluorescent spectrometer. Touchstone (lidite), standard noble metal alloys and reagents were used for the initial identification of the composition of the noble metal alloys used in the artefacts. In this way, the composition of the noble metal alloys could be tested using several nondestructive methods. Examination of the jewellery materials (gemstones, organic materials (pearls, corals, jet), glass) was conducted with the GemmoRaman 532 spectrometer and other special gemmological instruments, radiography, and also using the XRF method. In the 14th-17th centuries, gold works were made from an alloy of various purities of gold, silver and copper, while silver works were made from an alloy of silver, copper and gold, usually being gold-plated. The works were made from one alloy or from alloys of varying degrees of purity. Some of the silver jewellery was gold-plated using the amalgamation process - traces of mercury were found on some works. Some jewellery and other artefacts were produced from non-noble metals as well: lead and tin or tin alloys, bronze, copper, tombac (brass) and semi-brass alloys.A gold, silver and copper soldering metal of lower quality than the work itself was used to join gold details in the 141Ь-17Ш centuries, while a lower quality soldering metal of silver, copper, zinc and gold or silver, copper, iron and gold was used to solder together silver items. Details of base metal jewellery items were soldered together using soldering metals of lead and tin, or copper, zinc and tin. Jewellery items were decorated with variously coloured enamels. The research revealed that the white enamel base consisted of tin and antimony, black - of manganese and iron, blue - copper, yellow - lead, and red - of lead and silicon compounds. The composition of niello was determined for the first time: 45.7 % copper, 40 % lead, 12 % silver, and 0.2 % sulphur. The crucibles that were also examined were used to melt down silver, gold and other base metals. A total of 17 jewellery items of the 14th-17th centuries with precious stones and materials of organic origins were examined. Fresh-water (river) pearls, garnets, chalcedony, jasper, cornelian, mountain crystal, coral, jet, diamonds and rubies were identified among the materials used. [From the publication]

Related Publications:
XIV-XVII a. signetinių žiedų problematika / Rasa Valatkevičienė. Ženklai, simboliai, prasmės : Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės tyrimai pagalbinių istorijos mokslų aspektu / sudarytojos Rūta Čapaitė, Gitana Zujienė. Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 2019. P. 331-358.
2019-11-19 06:21:47
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