Kultura funeralna elit Rzeczypospolitej od XVI do XVIII wieku na terenie Korony i Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego : próba analizy interdyscyplinarnej

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knyga / Book
Lenkų kalba / Polish
Kultura funeralna elit Rzeczypospolitej od XVI do XVIII wieku na terenie Korony i Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego: próba analizy interdyscyplinarnej
Alternative Title:
Funeral culture of the elites republic of Poland from 16th of 18th c. in the area of the crown and the Great Duchy of Lithuania: the attempts of interdisciplinary analyses
Drążkowska, Anna, redagavimas [edt]
Publication Data:
Toruń : Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, 2015.
432 p
Wprowadzenie — Nowożytne trumny z badań archeologicznych z wybranych stanowisk z Polski, Litwy i Ukrainy / Rafał Niedźwiadek, Anna Drążkowska, Magdalena Majorek — Wyposażenie nowożytnych pochówków na podstawie wybranych stanowisk z Polski, Ukrainy i Litwy / Rafał Niedźwiadek, Anna Drążkowska, Wiera Hupało, Magdalena Przymorska-Sztuczka – Odzież grobowa z badań archeologicznych z wybranych stanowisk z Polski, Ukrainy i Litwy / Anna Drązkowska, Rafał Niedźwiadek, Simona Matuzevičiūtė, Małgorzata Grupa — Szczątki wybranych przedstawicieli dawnych elit Rzeczypospolitej w świetle badań antropologicznych i paleopatologicznych / Tomasz Kozłowski, Anna Drązkowska, Magdalena Krajewska — Bioarcheologia pochówków elit litewskich / Rimantas Jankauskas — Dieta przedstawicieli elit społecznych Rzeczypospolitej na podstawie analizy stabilnych izotopów węgla i azotu w szczątkach szkieletowych / Laurie J. Reitsema, Tomasz Kozłowski, Rimantas Jankauskas, Anna Drążkowska, Magdalena Krajewska — Zróżnicowanie antropologiczne ludności pochowanej w xv-xviii wieku na nekropolach lubelskich / Wanda Kozak-Zychman, Anna Szarlip — Szczątki roślin z badań archeologicznych z wybranych stanowisk z Polski i Litwy / Katarzyna Pińska, Agata Sady, Anna Drążkowska — Zagrożenie mikrobiologiczne w kryptach grobowych / Maciej Walczak, Anna Drążkowska, Aleksandra Burkowska-But, Maria Swiontek Brzezińska —Mikroorganizmy na tkaninach jedwabnych z krypt grobowych / Joanna Karbowska-Berent, Joanna Jarmiłko — Konserwacja zabytków archeologicznych / Anna Drążkowska, Dominika Siemińska, Małgorzata Grupa — Zakończenie — Spis ilustracji — Spis wykresów — Spis tabel — Bibliografia — Noty o autorach — Funeral culture of the elites Republic of Poland from 16th of 18th c. in the area of the crown and the Great Duchy of Lithuania. The attempts of interdisciplinary analyses (Summary).
Abiejų Tautų Respublika (ATR; Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów; Žečpospolita; Sandrauga; Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; Lenkija ir Lietuva; Lenkijos ir Lietuvos Valstybė; Lenkijos-Lietuvos unija); Antropologiniai tyrimai; Aristokratija; Augalija kapuose; Kapinės. Kapai. Kapavietės. Kapinynai / Cemeteries. Tombs. Graves; Laidojimas. Laidotuvės. Šermenys / Burial. Funeral; Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė (Lietuva; LDK; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; GDL); Mokslas / Science; Palaikai.
Antropological research; Aristocracy; Funeral clothing; Kingdom of Pland; Micro bioligal state of tombs; Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; Remains; Vegetation in graves.
Summary / Abstract:

ENThe present book could be created thanks to cooperation of many authors and demonstrates the results of our studies and analyses. Chronological range of the analyzed material was defined in the title and includes the period from 16th c till the end of 18th c, however, some cases refer to late mediaeval and 19th c objects. Our intention was to indicate sources of certain traditions and behaviors, but also their continuation, worked out for centuries. The artifacts and material collections come from sites located in the territories of Poland, Lithuania and Ukraine. The material derived from grave crypts defined and limited our research in a natural way to funeral culture of The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth elites, because the crypts were deposition places of temples donators, wealthy society representatives, nobles and eminent contributors for the society, motherland and the Church. The book presents innovative attitude towards the problem and is divided into six chapters, referring to the following disciplines: archaeology, costume studies, anthropology, paleobotany, microbiology and historical artifacts conservation. The part concerning archaeology demonstrates in separate sub-chapters forms and ways of coffin decorations and elements of grave equipment, obtained during explorations of various archaeological sites, e.g.: the archcathedral of St. John the Evangelist and St. John the Baptiser in Lublin, the church of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin Mary in Lublin, the church of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin Mary in Kraśnik, the church of the Finding of the Holy Cross in Końskowola, the church of St. Nicolas in Gniew, the church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Dubno, Volhynia, the church of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin Mary in Opole Lubelske, the church of St. Stanislaus in Modliborzyce and the church of St.Stanislaus in Modliborzyce and the church of St. Michael the Archangel in Kańczuga. For additional comparison, the references to artifacts, excavated in the churchyard of The Holy Spirit temple and the cemetery of The Holy Cross in Lublin were made. [...] The chapter concerning costume studies presents the results of analyses of clothes excavated from the burials, derived from the archcathedral of St. John the Evangelist and St. John the Baptiser in Lublin, the church of St. Nicolas in Gniew, the church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Dubno, Ukraine and the other sites located in Lithuania. These collections were selected as the most representative for the studied areas. The research confirmed that in various lands of the Republic, the deceased were buried either in clothes worn during their lives or in garments made specially for burial ceremony. All sites listed above, including Lithuania and Ukraine, recorded elements of male national costume, appearing in varied intensity. The biggest collection was reported in Lublin archcathedral: 16 żupans, 2 czechmans and 3 cloaks. The church of St. Nicolas in Gniew delivered only three examples, which patterns and haberdashery details could indicate national costume. Single examples were also excavated in Lithuanian and Ukrainian sites. It is difficult, however, to make general comparisons and conclusions, basing only on quantities of found clothes elements, because various factors could influence that result. It should be remembered that analyzed garments come from disturbed burials, devastated crypts, where skeletal and historical material were mixed up and therefore it is difficult to establish how many of those persons had really been buried in national costumes. [...].The research proved that national dress had been worn not only by adults, but the adolescent, as well and that it was a common tradition all over the area of The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. [...] The part describing anthropological problems uses two methodological attitudes towards the studied skeletal material, which can make impression of lack of consequence, in both the text structure and constructing scientific narration itself and the data presentation. It was the consequence of varied character and specifics of researched material. A part of these skeletons was described and characterized individually, the others were combined into one assembly with synthetic statistics, presenting the group as a certain population. [...] The chapter discussing paleobotanical issues presents the results of macroscopic studies of plant remains, excavated in coffins as filling of cushions and mattresses, but also small flower bunches or herbs, put into coffin bottoms, with particular authors’ attention directed to analyses of plants derived from inside mummified, embalmed bodies. [...] The book presents in a separate chapter problems of microbiological threat while working in burial crypts and treating the excavated material. Our task was to obtain samples from different sites, locations and objects and next identification and defining kinds and levels of risks, in order to inform and warn archaeologists against real danger for their health and life. [...] The last chapter presents a few selected examples of renovation and conservation works performed within the program. The demonstrated objects include only the most representative examples, which required new or modified methods protecting the objects. A number of the artifacts is exhibited in specially prepared exposition in Przemyśl archcathedral underground. The others will be prepared for future exhibitions, accessible for the public. [From the publication]

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2022-01-18 22:56:48
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