Žemaičių Kalvarijos dominikonų vienuolynas ir didžiavalstybinė Rusijos politika XIX amžiuje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Žemaičių Kalvarijos dominikonų vienuolynas ir didžiavalstybinė Rusijos politika XIX amžiuje
Alternative Title:
Žemaičių Kalvarijos dominican monastery and the Russian great-power politics in the 19th century
In the Journal:
Kultūrologija [Culturology]. 2002, t. 9, p. 149-172, 459-460
Apšvieta; Biblioteka; Carinė Rusija; Dominikonai; Katalikų bažnyčia; Kryžiaus keliai; Parapinė dominikonų mokykla; Vienuolyno turtas; Žemaičių Kalvarija; Žemaičių Kalvarijos dominikonų vienuolynas; Rusija (Russia).
Catholic Church; Cross roads; Dominican parish school; Dominicans; Enlightenment; Library; Lithuania; Monastery property; Tsarist Russia; Zemaiciu Kalvarijos dominican monastery; Žemaičių Kalvarija.
Summary / Abstract:

ENOn the downfall of the Commonwealth of Two Peoples, the Lithuanian Catholic Church experienced the impact of the Russian anti-Catholic policy. This article focuses on the history and the destruction of the Žemaičių Kalvarijos monastery in the 19th century. Most of the facts are related to the common problems of the Lithuanian Catholic Church and the regular clergy in tsarist Russia. The first decrees of the tsars changed the basis of regulating the control of the monks, but at first the decrees had no significant influence on the daily life of the monastery. In 1822, the construction of a brick church that had been in progress for many years was accomplished; the school that was patronized by the monks was given the status of a secondary school. However, these were the last efficient attempts of the Dominicans to withstand the threat of destruction of cloisters. In 1829, the tsar's decree forbade free acceptance of new members into monk communities. After the 1831 uprising, the Russian government accused the Catholic Church of supporting actively the insurrection and therefore undertook active actions against the clergy. The Žemaičių Kalvarijos monastery, contrary to many others, was not closed, but its activities were strictly controlled by the secular power. In 1841, the properly of the cloisters was secularized and the cloisters were differentiated into categories.The Žemaičių Kalvarijos monastery was ascribed to the lowest category; therefore under the circumstances it faced the danger of rapid destruction. In 1842, the last remnants of monks' self-government were lost. The numerous sanctions that limited religious activities were the obstacle for the monks to perform their duties required by the Order's constitution. Meddling in the internal order of the monastery ruined the rules provided by the regula. In the inter-rebellion period, the structure of the regular black clergy as an organization was deranged. The repressive actions of Russian power that followed after 1863 were directed against separate monk communities. In the Žemaičių Kalvarija lived a community of elderly monks transferred from several other monasteries. In 1889 the monastery was closed. The closure was not the result of accidental circumstances. The fate of the Žemaičių Kalvarijos monastery was a result of the consistent and far-seeing policy of the tsarist Russian power. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 11:08:45
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