23-iojo pasienio būrio žvalgybininkų veikla Lietuvoje 1954-1958 m. blokuojant pajūrį

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
23-iojo pasienio būrio žvalgybininkų veikla Lietuvoje 1954-1958 m. blokuojant pajūrį
Alternative Title:
Activities of the 23th frontier squad of intelligencers on blocking the coastal zone in Lithuania in 1951-1958
In the Journal:
Genocidas ir rezistencija. 2002, 2 (12), p. 7-36
1940-1990. Lietuva okupacijų metais.
Summary / Abstract:

LTPasieniečių veiklą Lietuvoje mūsą istorikai yra šiek tiek tyrinėję. Pirmasis apie pasienio pulkų (iš jų buvo sudaryta frontų užnugario apsaugos NKVD kariuomenė) ir būrių veiklą gana plačiai rašė Arvydas Anusauskas knygoje „Lietuvių tautos sovietinis naikinimas 1940-1958 metais“ (Vilnius, 1996 m.). Tas pats autorius žurnalo „Genocidas ir rezistencija“ 1997 m. pirmame ir antrame numeriuose paskelbė duomenis ir jų analizę, taip pat įvairių šalių lyginamąją analizę apie įvairių rusų vidaus kariuomenės rūšių veiklą Lietuvoje. Šio straipsnio autorius to pat žurnalo 1997 m. ir 1998 m. pirmuose numeriuose paskelbė du straipsnius, kuriuose rašė vien apie pasienio pulkus ir būrius. Siek tiek patvarkius, tie straipsniai atskirais skyriais buvo įdėti į monografiją „Čekistinė kariuomenė Lietuvoje 1944-1953 metais“ (Vilnius, 1998 m.). Kęstučio Kasparo monografijoje „Lietuvos karas“ (Kaunas, 1999 m.) dažnai minimi pasieniečiai, jų junginiai ir kovos su partizanais. Minėti autoriai rašė apie pasieniečių veiklą 1944-1953 m. (K. Kasparas - apie veiklą 1944-1946 m.) т.). Šiame straipsnyje, remiantis Lietuvos ypatingajame archyve saugomu nedideliu 23-iojo pasienio būrio (PB) fondu, bandoma parodyti sovietinių pasieniečių ir konkrečiai to būrio, ypač jo žvalgybininkų, veiklą jau po partizaninio karo. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Agentai; KGB 23-iojo pasienio būrys; Politinė istorija; Sovietiniai pasieniečiai; Sovietinė Lietuva; Sovietų pasieniečiai; Verbavimas; 23st frontier squad of KGB; Agents; Political history; Recruitment; Soviet Lithuania; Soviet frontier; Soviet frontier squad.

ENWith reference to a moderate fond of thirty files stored in the Special Archives of Lithuania, the article describes activities of the 2nd intelligence division of the SSRS KGB frontier troops' 23rd frontier squad, in part and of the entire squad. Since February 1945 up until the collapse of the Soviet Union this squad blocked the coast of Lithuania and the Kaliningrad region (former Eastern Prussians) (for some time also a part of the Latvian coast), and a small range of the land board between Kaliningrad region and Poland, all in all about 251) km. Activities of the frontier squads got complicated due to the ports where more foreign ships would come each time, as well as due to numerous visitors in the sea resorts, the most famous of which was Palanga. One more issue of concern was Klaipėda land which had been occupied by the Hitler's Germany just before the war in 1939 and where a part of citizens were of German origin, but did not manage to move westwards during the war. This part of citizenry considered themselves as Lithuanians and was positive that they would not manage to get along with the Soviet regime, so they put many efforts to leave westwards or at least to the eastern Germany. Hundreds of them corresponded with their relatives living abroad. In 1955, hundreds of former political prisoners and deportees started returning home. All they became the objects of supervision by the KGB structures, frontier intelligences, and were considered to be potential state enemies. Mostly supervised were those who had one or another way expressed their will to flee the Soviet Union (the number of such people at the frontier ranged from 20 to 50 at different time).The squad intelligencers (from 8 to 13 of them from lime to time) would collect the intelligence or counterespionage data with the assistance of frontier pike heads who would normally work with several agents and few reliable persons (each operational intelligencer worked with 10 agents on average, and was responsible for a certain frontier sector (1-5 pikes) and its rear, which stretched 10-20 km deep into the country and where a certain frontier zone regime did ran). From 1960 on, the frontier intelligencers were also ordered to supervise the ftontier soldiers. The Soviet frontier soldiers were assigned not only to prevent undesirable people and things (foreign intelligencers, drugs, smuggling etc.) from entering the country, but also and most importantly to see that nobody and nothing would leave the territory of the country. In the structure of the "iron wall", the frontier army was the main force. People attempting to flee the country would often be sentenced to imprisonment and sometimes confined in psychiatric clinics. Attempting to block the coastal zone entirely, all the borderlines, observation and searchlight posts, radio locators, cutters, planes, etc were constantly checked. This inspection was assigned not only to the frontier soldiers, but also to the purposefully recruited agents. On the Lithuanian coastal zone, there were more than 400 recruited agents about 100 of whom belonged to the frontier army (others belonged to other KGB structures). Strategic squads were also assisted by about the same number of people from the frontier support brigades. Soviet partisans, and reliable persons. Moreover, it was attempted to move the local people out of the frontier territory. This was done in the territory Giruliai-Palanga when the military sectors had been established there. A lot was done to turn local people to informers.Assumed borderline trespassers were often sent to the frontier territory to provoke the local people. Some lime later, these attempts finally gave results: custom inhabitants were no worse informers than agents were. The biggest object of concern to the frontier army was the Palanga-Šventoji territory, which according lo the army was least secured. They were even more suspicious since in 1949-1950 the English had unshipped three groups of Baltic intelligencers, altogether 12 people. Almost all except for one were arrested after a famous Russian intelligencer Kim Philby had betrayed them. Having started to apply modern technologies in the work of intelligentsia, the work of the Soviet frontier army became meaningless, especially in regard to the Americans, however they remained devoted to the KGB principles to the utmost. From the sixties up, the frontier soldiers started recruiting even foreigners, mostly seamen. The 23rd frontier squad was accountable for recruiting people from Sweden. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 11:05:57
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