Įmonių reabilitavimo kaštai : metodologiniai aspektai

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Įmonių reabilitavimo kaštai: metodologiniai aspektai
Alternative Title:
Entrpeise's rehabilitation costs: methodological aspects
In the Journal:
Organizacijų vadyba: sisteminiai tyrimai [Management of Organizations: Systematic Research]. 2005, Nr. 34, p. 161-175
Keywords:
LT
Nepajėgios įmonės; Įmonių restruktūrizavimas; Reorganizavimas; Reabilitavimas; Reabilitavimo kaštai.
EN
Insolvent enterprises; Enterprise restructuring; Reorganization; Rehabilitation; Rehabilitation costs.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnio tikslas – apibendrinti autoriaus, kitų Lietuvos bei užsienio autorių sukauptą įmonių bankroto prevencijos tyrimų medžiagą, pateikti reabilitavimo kaštų vertinimo metodiką ir suformuluoti siūlymus reabilitavimo kaštams mažinti. Apibendrindamas įmonių reabilitavimo problemas ir procesus, aprašytus Lietuvos ir užsienio šalių ekonominėje literatūroje, bei mūsų šalies patirtį kuriant ir įgyvendinant bankroto prevencijos sistemą, autorius išskiria pagrindines problemas šiuo metu būdingas Lietuvai iš kurių pirmoji – ne visai susiformavusi terminologija. Mokslinėje literatūroje įmonės, nesugebančios laiku atsiskaityti su kreditoriais, vadinamos nemokiomis, nepajėgiomis, turinčiomis laikinų sunkumų arba bankrutuojančiomis. Naudojant įvairius terminus, problematiški yra kriterijai ir laiko momentas, nuo kurio ta ar kita sąvoka turėtų būti taikoma įmonės būklei apibūdinti. Iki šiol parengti įmonių reabilitavimo planai buvo nepakankamai kokybiški, o kai kurie – tik formalūs dokumentai, sudaryti norint pradėti neteisėtą restruktūrizavimą, gauti kreditorių, ypač Valstybinių mokesčių bei SoDros įmokų nuolaidas ir ištempti merdėjimo laiką. Lietuvoje, kaip rodo bankrutavusių bylų balansų analizė, tyčinio bankroto procentas gali būti gana žymus, tačiau dėl jo buvo iškeltos vos kelios bylos iš kurių nepavyko įrodyti tyčinio bankroto nei vienai įmonei, o dėl neteisėto restruktūrizavimo neiškelta nei viena byla. Valstybės politika į krizinę situaciją patekusių įmonių atžvilgiu neturėtų būti pasyvi ar apsiriboti tik mokesčių ir kitų įmokų mokėjimo atidėjimais.

ENArticle deals with enterprise insolvency problems: examines the main procedures and problems of enterprise rehabilitation in Lithuania and other European countries as well as in US. The author has attempted to ascertain the main features of insolvent enterprises and problems of inefficient sanation, reorganization and restructuring. The article rests on the analysis of scientific literature, statistical data and enterprise bankruptcy, reorganization, restructuring, rehabilitation, as well as, turnaround and strenghtening of a financial discipline of insolvent enterprises. The analysis of statistical data shows, that average annual bankruptcies in Lithuania access 700 entities and that sanation, reorganization and restructuring have not been much successful. That's whay the problem is so important for Lithuania. There are analyzed the methodologies of enterprise insolvency determination in different countries and in scientific literature. These methodologies are proper when trying to turn the problems, which can establish possible threats for an insolvent enterprise, into particular models. Though not so many sources are trying to treat the enterprise's rehabilitation costs and efficiency from the integrated view point. In the meantime, the problems of overcoming of enterprise's insolvency and rehabilitation of enterprise's competitiveness are very complicated because of the lack of financial and other resources. The analysis of statistical data shows that the situation in a local economy is quite complicated. As we see from balance sheets about 35 percent of enterprises are making loses in Lithuania. The reorganization of enterprises under the existing legislation have not been efficient. 33 of 40 reoganized enterprises under the laws during 1993-2004 period were liquidated soon after the announcement of restructuring, only 2 were reorganized succcesfully.It means that there is great necessity in special preserving means for the Lithuanian industry in order to survive and be competitive in the EU economy. One of the means is enterprise rehabilitation. The main objective of enterprise rehabilitation is to keep an enterprise acting and to meet the creditors' claims. All other goals and tasks of an enterprise under rehabilitation must satisfy the main objective. The main short-term goal of an enterprise is to pay up creditors within the time due in the rehabilitation plan. The other goals of rehabilitation such as competitiveness and good image of an enterprise as a business partner are important as well. These goals are usually reached on the principles of equal opportunities, consiousness, transperancy, balance of interests of different involved groups. The structure of explicit and implicit costs is analysed and there is provided the structure of net rehabilitation costs. The article discovers the main weaknesses and problems of enterprise rehabilitation in Lithuania which are to be solved in the nearest future. The article sets forth the methodology of rehabilitation costs calculation for different insolvency circumstances and probabilities for success: the best and the worst results as it was predicted by the rehabilitation plan. The methodology rests on the formulas presented by Michelle J. White. The suggestions for improvement of management of rehabilitation process involve the measures for development of the legislation system such as the improvement of legal environment for insolvent enterprises and strenghtenning the institutional capacities. The preparation of Bankruptcy Code as it is in the USA and other developed countries is desirable.Suggestions for the improvement of institutional framework include Court specialization, bailiff status conferment to the administrator, development of a national program for enterprise rehabilitation, and the education system for administrators. Furtheremore, there must be increased the enterprise managers' responsibility for an amiss payment and unjustified rehabilitation. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-1142; 2335-8750
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/37279
Updated:
2018-12-17 11:43:01
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