Žanrinis ir struktūrinis televizijos reportažo polifoniškumas

Direct Link:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Žanrinis ir struktūrinis televizijos reportažo polifoniškumas
Alternative Title:
Genre and structural poliphonity of television reportage
In the Journal:
Tiltai [Bridges] [Brücken]. 2004, Nr. 4 (29), p. 131-137
Audiovizualinė žiniasklaida; Audivizualinė komunikacia; Masinė komiunikacija; Masinė komunikacija; Masinė komunikacija, audiovizualinė žiniasklaida, televizija, žanrai, reportažas; Reportažas; Televizija; Žanrai.
Audiovizual media; Genres; Mass Communication; Mass communication, audiovisual media, tevision, genres, reportage; Mass media; Reportage; Reports; Television; Visual Media.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje nagrinėjamas vienas svarbiausių šiuolaikinės televizijos žanrų - reportažas. Jis yra tapęs kasdienio informavimo, keitimosi nuomonėmis bodu. Nors reportažui būdingi apibrėžti žanro reikalavimai, tačiau lieka daug vietos žurnalisto improvizacijai. Straipsnyje aptariamos reportažo klasifikavimo problemos ir raiškos priemonių - vaizdo, gano, teksto - dermė. Autorius akcentuoja televizijos reportažo universalumą ir raiškos priemonių polifoniškumą. [Iš leidinio]

ENReportage is one of the most universal genres of alternative television. It is a measure for information, notification about important events, there are presented opinions and evaluations, there arc told miscellanea. Specific features of television reportage are the effect of pressman and viewer participation in the event, genre democracy (showed event, it is being commented, there arc presented opinions), mobility and collegiality of creative group are characteristic to the process of reportage creation. Reportage is an important part of creation of television channel service image. Reportage develops information, gives for it additional value. Event reportage theory dominates in the Lithuanian journalism (if there is no event, it means, that there is no reportage). Reportage is one of information genres so called pressman's "participation effect" is emphasized. Theorists of Russian media emphasize, that reportageability is generally chracteristic to television, reportage is the main genre of audiovisual journalism. Western tradition of journalism genres emphasizes reporter's connection to the event, too, however it doesn't draw a clear border between informational and analytic genres. Everything, what is filmed outside the borders of television studio, is deemed often to be a reportage. A wide reportage genre range lets the journalist to choose the most suitable reflection form of the event or issue. It can be fated by format (news or journal), the way of connection with auditorium and event (direct, mounted), possibilities of issue elucidation (news, comprehensive-news, analytical). News reportage gives daily information, renders to the viewer the possibility to see the event, to hear witnesses, emotions. It is actual and quite objective information, which informs about the essence of news.In comprehensive news reportage there is more analysis, it is tried to seek for event reasons, there are compared facts and opinions, there is provided a wider context. Goals of analytical reportage are simmilar to comprehensive news reportage, but the length is different, author of an analytic reportage is less limited by any norms. It can be personalized pressman work, revealing a subjective view of the author. Genre variety of reportage lets not only to inform, but to provide entertaining information, too (miscellanea reportage), to create analytical researches (dossier, documentary). Miscellanea reportages can be presented as a colour of community life, sight, curiosity, demonstration of unusual capabilities. They can be created simulating news reportage, but sometimes there is chosen a scenic form, plummier montage, video and sound figuration. Expression polyphony of a television reportage arrives composing proportions of view, sound and text content. Reportage author can dispose different screen expression possibilities: technical parameters (type of objective, shotting, racourse, movements of camera, plan length), shot content (environment, actors, action, shot composition), sound (noise, music), text (interview, text behind the shot). Having regard to the method of Belgian sociologists B. Besse and D. Besormeaux, there are presented four ways of view and sound coordination - annulment, inconsistence, stratification, multiplication. Styles of montage let create different figures of expression components. In montage of unrelated view and sound (sandwich) there dominate text logic, view performs illustration function. The style offlash connection montage (pie) uses view, text and sound, separates reportage into independent, but related to each other episodes. Montage of soft connections (network) lets use the possibilities of all reportage components, to highlight now the one, now other expression measures.It is a delicate manner of reportage construction, which creates an impellent and understandable for auditorium rhythm of the story. Reportage expression components complement each other, they don't contest, but cooperate. The style of reportage composition is fated by the domination of one of the components. There can dominate text behind the shot (explanatory style), the author of reportage (exploratory style), interview (documentary style). Reportage structure fates available material and time limits. When there is the need to prepare news reportage with expedition, there dominates usually view logic. Views are mounted in the order, which they were filmed in. View logic dominates, when there are available spectascular views, too, their uniqueness is emphasized with the help of view without any commentaries, only followed by natural sounds (so called internoise). Text logic is characteristic to official information. Then the view performs only additional function. Montage logic dominates, when during shooting authors follow reportage plan prepared in advance. Proportions of view and text create new sences, so called screen context. There is often used pinning principle, when showed persons or objects are indicated concretely. Reportage text can create additional senses, verbal information sometimes relates to the view only associatively. View and text can be composed according to the contrast principle, there are created metaphors or other artistic measures. Genre and expression polyphony of television reportage give wide improvisation possibilities for the pressman and the whole creative group. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 11:26:50
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