Valstiečiai liaudininkai jungtiniame antismetoninės opozicijos sąjūdyje "Ašis" (1938–1939 m. pradžia)

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Valstiečiai liaudininkai jungtiniame antismetoninės opozicijos sąjūdyje "Ašis" (1938–1939 m. pradžia)
Alternative Title:
Peasant Populists and the joint opposition movement "Axis” in 1938–1939
In the Journal:
Lituanistica. 2011, Nr. 4, p. 386-404
20 amžius; Antisemitizmas; Antismetoninė koalicija Ašis; Krikščionys demokratai; Valstiečiai liaudininkai; Voldemarininkai.
Anti-Semitism; Christian democrats; Opposition movement Ašis”; Peasant Populists.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje išsamiai aptariama oficialiai uždraustos, bet realiai tebeveikusios Lietuvos valstiečių liaudininkų sąjungos ir jos politinių partnerių Lietuvių krikščionių demokratų partijos bei voldemarininkų veikla jungtiniame antismetoninės opozicijos sąjūdyje „Ašis“. 1938–1939 m. pradžioje veikusi uždraustų minėtų partijų koalicija siekė nuversti prezidento A. Smetonos autoritarinį valdymą. Straipsnyje pirmą kartą išsamiai aptariami valstiečių liaudininkų santykiai su koalicijos partneriais, išryškinama liaudininkų lyderių veikla, partijos programinės nuostatos ir santykių su voldemarininkais nutraukimas. [Iš leidinio]

ENActivities of the Lithuanian political opposition, including Peasant Populists, to the authoritarian regime of President Antanas Smetona since the ban of political parties in 1936 have been poorly studied so far. Joint activities of three ideologically different political movements – Peasant Populists, Christian Democrats and the right wing radicals “Voldemarininkai” – in this joint movement in Klaipeda is not an exception. With this in mind, the author of the article tries to analyze the role of the Lithuanian Peasant Populist Union (LPPU) in the activities of the opposition movement “Axis” in 1938–1939. The chronology of the research was determined by two core events in the Lithuanian political life: first, acceptance of the Polish ultimatum on 17 March 1938 after which both states established diplomatic relations which had been absent since October 1920 when Polish troops invaded and occupied the Lithuanian capital Vilnius, and second, the loss of Klaipėda District on 22 March 1939 when Nazi Germany annexed the only sea port of Lithuania. The author concludes that the agreement of the LPPU leaders to join the oppositional Christian Democrats and the right wing radicals “Voldemarininkai” in 1938–1939 shows the changed tactics of the Populists in their oppositional activities, and it reflects the political crisis of the state. The role of Peasant Populists at the initial phase of this joint oppositional movement was significant: the party leadership supported it financially, contributed ideologically to the program, and, finally, supported the plan to overthrow the Lithuanian authoritarianism.On the other hand, the absence of LPPU leaders in the headquarters of “Axis” in Klaipėda (except only Juozas Pajaujis) implies that Populists’ position in this joint oppositional movement was not firm. The LPPU representative Juozas Pajaujis alone was not able to sustain the pressure of right-wing radicals and finally started promoting the ideas of radical right, among them anti-Semitism. Under these circumstances, the LPPU leadership dissociated from the “Axis” in February 1939, but didn’t recall Juozas Pajaujis back to Kaunas. They stayed as passive observers. These contradictions lead to the conclusion that Peasant Populists took an ambiguous position towards “Axis”. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 13:07:56
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