Vilniaus kredito kooperacija 1878-1914 m.

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Vilniaus kredito kooperacija 1878-1914 m
Alternative Title:
Vilnius credit cooperation in 1878-1914
In the Journal:
Pinigų studijos. 2011, Nr. 1, p. 48-63
Kredito draugijos; Skolinamosios taupomosios draugijos; Nariai; Indėliai; Kapitalas.
Credit society; Credit savings society; Members; Deposits; Capital.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje siekiama atkurti kredito kooperacijos judėjimo dabartinėje Vilniaus teritorijoje istoriją, išaiškinti aktyviausius jos kūrėjus, aptarti kredito kooperatyvų veiklos raidą, skolinimo politiką ir šių kooperatyvų vaidmenį, atskleisti jų narių skaičiaus pokyčius, tautinę, socialinę sudėtį. Taip tikimasi praturtinti tiek Lietuvos kredito kooperacijos istoriją, tiek miesto praeities suvokimą, pagausinti biogramų fondą. [Iš leidinio]

ENThis subject has never been touched on, historiography is not available. The paper was written based mainly on the initial sources – annual statements of Vilnius credit cooperatives published or kept in the Lithuanian State Historical Archives. It mainly focuses on the elucidation of the trends and peculiarities in the activities of credit savings societies, especially of the largest ones – Vilnius Society of Craftsmen and Small Traders and Vilnius Credit Savings Society, as well as of the factors behind them. In the article, the development of credit cooperation is related to changes in the Russian authorities’ approach to these credit institutions, the political and economic situation in the Empire. These issues have been more thoroughly analysed in the author’s monograph “Banking in Lithuania 1795–1915”. Therefore this paper almost does not deal with the management of credit savings societies and credit societies, the rights and responsibilities of members of their boards and councils and of their shareholders, regulation of the performance of their operations and allocation of profits. Most attention is devoted to the circumstances and initiators of the establishment of these societies, the development of the number of their shareholders, the social and national composition and the operation of these societies. The research carried out on the basis of the initial sources ascertained that before World War I on the territory of the present Vilnius, two types of credit co-operatives were in operation – shareholder credit savings societies and credit unions whose members were free from paying shares. The earliest to have been established (in 1878) was Verkiai Credit Saving Society. The second – Vilnius Credit Savings Society of Craftsmen and Small Traders – emerged after an interval of 20 years.Establishment of credit co-operatives intensified at the beginning of the 20th century, when three credit savings societies and two credit societies were founded. The paper has more thoroughly analysed the changes in the number of members of the three largest savings societies (Verkiai, Vilnius Craftsmen and Small Traders, Vilnius), their social and ethnic composition, and development of operation; the personal composition of their boards and councils has been ascertained. According to all performance indicators, Vilnius Credit Savings Society of Craftsmen and Small Traders and Vilnius Credit Savings Society held the leading positions not only in the city but in the Vilnius Governorate credit cooperation segment as well. According to the data of 1 January 1914, they accounted for 73 per cent of the deposits held by this Governorate’s credit savings societies and 56.3 per cent of their granted loans. At that time, the former had 7,455 members, the latter 1,905 members, who owed them almost 1 million rubles. They expanded their credit and deposit operations fast. The development of the Vilnius Credit Savings Society’s operation was uneven; due to nonpayments of its members it ceased granting loans and commenced winding-up procedures. Naujininkai Credit Savings Society and Naujoji Vilnia Credit Savings Society founded respectively in 1907 and 1912 were short of time for expanding their operations. On the eve of World War One all credit savings societies in the city had extended loans to a sizeable part of small traders (1.02 million rubles to 8,302 persons), which helped these balancing their currency flows and avoiding expensive services of moneylenders. In addition, the societies significantly contributed to the development of small business in the city, the increase of its economic potential, improvement of living conditions, etc. [From the publication]

1392-2637; 1648-8970
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2018-12-17 13:07:09
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