Kada lietuviai pradėjo kautis raiti?

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Kada lietuviai pradėjo kautis raiti?
Alternative Title:
When did the Lithuanians start to fight on horseback?
In the Journal:
Lituanistica. 2011, Nr. 1, p. 54-65
Baltai; Raiteliai; žirgai; Kavalerija.
Balts; Lithuania; Horsemen; Horses; Cavalry.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje, remiantis archeologinių tyrinėjimų duomenimis ir rašytiniais šaltiniais, analizuojamas baltų kavalerijos atsiradimo klausimas. Kritiškai vertinama šiuolaikinėje lietuvių istoriografijoje formuojama nuomonė, jog dar XIII a. lietuviai nemokėjo kautis raiti, o žirgai tebuvo karių transportavimo priemonė. Rašytiniai šaltiniai leidžia teigti, jog nuo XIII a. pradžios lietuvių karinėse pajėgose būta raitelių, gebėjusių kautis nenulipant nuo žirgo, ir kad Lietuvoje jau egzistavo lengvoji kavalerija. [Iš leidinio]

ENIn the article, the origin of the Balts’ cavalry is analysed, based on the findings of archaeological researches and written sources. The opinion of the contemporary Lithuanian historiography that Lithuanian servicemen could not fight mounted in the 13th century and could perform the only function – transportation (from the three functions of a horseman – to create the break-through forces in a battle, to carry out reconnaissance and to perform transportation) is valued critically. Some researchers still assert that in the 13th century the Lithuanian military forces comprised only infantrymen, whereas cavalry as a separate tactical unit did not exist at that time. At present, this theoretical scheme is accepted as an axiom more often. The scheme is designed tendentiously ignoring obvious data of archaeological, paleozoological and historical sources. The written sources give direct evidence that Lithuanians could fight mounted and fought in this way (the conflict among the Lithuanians, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword and the Semigallians in 1208) and manoeuvred cleverly while using the distance weapons – throwing spears – during battles. The Lithuanians as well as their enemies fought not only mounted, they also jumped down from their horses if there was a need (e. g., battle in the forest). According to data of paleozoological and biometric researches, in the beginning of the second millennium, horses bred in the territory of Lithuania were perfectly suitable for the needs of light cavalry. Data of archaeological researches also indicate that at the end of the first and in the beginning of the second millennium, in Lithuania a horseman and his horse had already a complete outfit. It helped a horseman to sit in the saddle more firmly and to handle a horse more efficiently. It is believed that at that time light cavalry could have existed in the Lithuanian military forces.Written sources corroborate the fact that in Lithuania light cavalry started its existence in the beginning of the 13th century. [From the publication]

0235-716X; 2424-4716
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2020-02-13 21:54:39
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