Ietigalių tipologija ir chronologija iš LDK Vilniaus ir Medininkų vyskupijos XIV a. pabaigos-XV a. kapų

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Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Ietigalių tipologija ir chronologija iš LDK Vilniaus ir Medininkų vyskupijos XIV a. pabaigos-XV a. kapų
Alternative Title:
Spearhead typology and chronology from late 14th-15th century burials in the GDL dioceses of Vilnius and Medininkai
In the Journal:
Lietuvos archeologija. 2009, t. 35, p. 199-240
Keywords:
LT
Ietigaliai; Koreliacinis klasteris; Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė (Lietuva; LDK; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; GDL); Vilniaus vyskupija; Medininkų vyskupija.
EN
Spearheads; Correlation clusters; Diocese of Vilnius; Diocese of Medininkai.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje pateikiamas ietigalių iš Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės (LDK) Vilniaus ir Medininkiį vyskupijos karių kapų visuminis vaizdas. 140 įmovinių ir įtveriamiįjų ietigalių iš 44 kapinynų pagal plunksnos plotį ir įmovos skersmenį klasifikuota į tipus, o šie dar į atskirus pogrupius. Kiekvieno ietigalių pogrupio chronologijai nustatyti sudaryti koreliaciniai klasteriai. Jų duomenys parodo, kad kariai su ietimis laidoti nuo LDK christianizacijos pradžios ikipatXVa. pabaigos. Vėlyvesniuose XVIXVII a. kapuose nerasta nė vieno ietigalio. [Iš leidinio]

ENOne spearhead was found in each of 140 burials in 44 Late Medieval cemeteries in the GDL dioceses of Vilnius and Medininkai (Fig. 1). The number of spearheads from the cemeteries of these dioceses is very similar: in the diocese of Vilnius, 74 burials from 22 cemeteries; in the diocese of Medininkai, 63 burials from 20 cemeteries. Another 3 spearheads were found in 2 cemeteries from a part of the presentday territory of Lithuania, which did not belong to the 15th century diocese of Medininkai. The 121 socketed spearheads were classified into four types according to blade width and socket diameter, and the four types into separate subgroups (variants). Type I spearheads (Figs. 2, 4-5, 7) differ from the other types due to the wide blade and the socket made for a thick shaft. Type II spearheads (Figs. 9, 11, 13, 15) have a blade and socket with a moderate width. The type III spearheads (Figs. 17, 19,21,23) have a narrow blade and a narrow socket made for a thin shaft. The type IV spearheads (Fig. 25) are the smallest of the socketed spearhead types. These were probably replicas of fighting weapons and had only a symbolic meaning. The socketed spearhead correlation clusters showed that it is possible to define the chronology of the type II variant 4 spearheads (Fig. 16) as the late 14th - first third of the 15th century, the type I variants 1 (Fig. 3) and 3 (Fig. 8) as the first third of the 15th century, the type II variants 1 (Fig. 10) and 3 (Fig. 14) and type III variants 2 (Fig. 20) and 3 (Fig. 22) as the first half of the 15th century, and the type I variant 2 (Fig. 6), type II variant 2 (Fig. 12), type III variants 1 (Fig. 18) and 4 (Fig. 24), and type IV (Fig. 26) as 15th century.The 11 tanged spearheads were classified into four types according to blade width. The blades of the type I spearheads (Fig. 27) are moderately long, but especially wide. The blades of the type II spearheads (Fig. 29) are short and twice as narrow as the type I spearheads. The blade of the single type III spearhead (Fig. 31) is long and narrow, but the tang is also long. The blades of the type IV spearheads (Fig. 32) are short and moderately long like types I and II, but they are the narrowest of all the tanged groups. The tanged spearhead correlation clusters showed that it is possible to define the chronology of types II (Fig. 30) and IV (Fig. 33) as the first half of the 15th century, and that of type I (Fig. 28) and the single type III as 15th century. 8 spearheads could not be classified. A small bent tip made of thicker cast iron sheet was found in a 15th century male burial (Fig. 34:1) and was called a very small spearhead. This find was compared to the pilgrim's staff tip from Sweden (Fig. 34:2) and ascribed the same functional purpose. [From the publication]

ISSN:
0207-8694; 2538-6514
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Updated:
2022-01-17 12:39:28
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