Lietuvos dvarų sodų, parkų tyrimai

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Lietuvos dvarų sodų, parkų tyrimai
Alternative Title:
Research of Lithuanian manor parks and garden
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2009, t. 55, p. 133-147. Lietuvos dvarai: kultūros paveldo tyrinėjimai
Notes:
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Kraštovaizdžio architektūra; Istorinis želdynas; Sodas; Parkai; Lanscape architecture; Green areas; Park; Garden.
Keywords:
LT
Archeologiniai tyrinėjimai / Archaeological investigations; Architektūra / Architecture; Istorinis želdynas; Kraštovaizdis / Landscape; Parkai / Parks; Paveldas / Heritage; Sodas.
EN
Garden; Green areas; Park.
Summary / Abstract:

LTRyškiausias vaidmuo dvarų sodybų kultūrinio kraštovaizdžio panoramoje tenka istoriniams želdynams: sodams ir parkams – pirminiams kraštovaizdžio architektūros židiniams, per ilgus amžius atspindintiems žmogaus siekį tobulinti aplinką. Istorinio želdyno (sodo) vaizdas kiekvienoje epochoje savaip atspindėjo supantį pasaulį, žmogaus vietą jame. Gausiausias Lietuvoje yra XVIII a. pab.-XIX a. parkų paveldas, savo struktūrose slepiantis praeitų amžių pėdsakus, tačiau dauguma XIX a. dvarų parkų šiandien yra kritinės būklės. Sovietmetis buvo itin nedėkingas Lietuvos istorinių želdynų paveldui: po Antrojo pasaulinio karo pasikeitė istorinių parkų savininkai, dažnai ir panaudojimo pobūdis. Straipsnyje apžvelgiami Lietuvos dvarų istorinių želdynų: sodų, parkų istoriniai, archeologiniai tyrimai vykdyti sovietmečiu ir Nepriklausomoje Lietuvoje. Sovietmetis nebuvo dėkingas dvarų istorinių želdynų išlikimui: tik keletas jų buvo valstybės tvarkomi, kiti, palikti be priežiūros, užmiršti ar drastiškai pertvarkomi, gyveno savo gyvenimą. Šiandien, padidėjus dėmesiui dvarams, jų želdynams ir suintensyvėjus tvarkymo darbams, aktualios tapo jų prarasto autentiškumo paieškos. Straipsnyje, pateikus konkrečių pavyzdžių, atskleidžiama istorinių tyrimų svarba, siekiamybė kuo labiau priartėti prie buvusio pirminio istorinių sodų, parkų vaizdo.

ENThe historical green areas o f countryside manors dominated the Lithuanian cultural landscape and became first instances of landscape architecture and the art of parks and gardens as a reflection of human desire to perfect his natural surroundings and create "living" works of art. The history and development of parks and gardens of Lithuanian manors remains a scarcely researched subject. Very little is known of the former Renaissance and Baroque parks and gardens that did not survive: their original layout was destroyed or altered; some of these parks and gardens were destroyed completely. The ancient trees disappeared, the ponds became muddy and the small forms of park architecture such as shelters, footbridges, stairs and terraces were not preserved. The article gives an overview of the research into the parks of Lithuanian manors performed during Soviet years and over post-Soviet decades; it also underscores the necessity to continue the research. T w o fundamental books published in Soviet years are the w o r k by the architect Antanas Tauras, The Parks of the Lithuanian SSR (1966) and The Lithuanian Parks (1989). The layout, composition and the dendrological make up recorded for each historical park or garden included in these books remains one of the main sources of information on many Lithuanian parks. The research of sources on historical parks was carried on from the 1950s by the Monument Restoration Institute - in preparation for restoration designs. Yet in many cases it was inadequate, as the composition and historical evolution of the parks was disregarded.The research into Lithuanian manor heritage over the period of the re-established independence was focused primarily on architectural features of the buildings, while historical parks and gardens allotted just a secondary role. Volumes II and III of the History of Lithuanian Architecture analyze the features of countryside manors from the periods of Classicism and Historicism in terms of grounds layout and spatial distribution. Several individual articles focus on the architecture of parks. The growing interest in historical parks of manors is reflected in intensified research, dominated by the work of dendrologists. Historical parks and gardens change over time, therefore the main source of information that provides a possibility to reveal their original picture is historical research based on written, cartographic and iconographie historical sources. Though no understanding of such an object of analysis is possible without this kind of research, the experience of foreign restorers of historical parks demonstrates that even thorough researches can only approach the original form of a historical park or a garden, which remains subject to interpretation, as no objective research can establish the original, "ideal" picture and character of a historical park or garden. The role for a restorer therefore is to attempt at reviving the structure and character of a historical garden. Such a task also requires research: general principles dominating the creation of the ancient parks and gardens in a given country need to be established, and extant examples analyzed before using them as prototypes. [From the publication]

ISBN:
9789955854524
ISSN:
1392-0316
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Updated:
2018-12-17 12:27:50
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