Lietuvių katalikų intelektualų kooperacijos samprata XIX–XX a. sandūroje

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Lietuvių katalikų intelektualų kooperacijos samprata XIX–XX a. sandūroje
Alternative Title:
Conception of cooperation of Lithuanian catholic intellectuals of the begining of XX century
In the Journal:
Soter. 2008, 25 (53), p. 157-173
Notes:
LDB Open.
Keywords:
LT
katalikybė; socialinis trisingumas; gerovės valstybė; katalikų bažnyčia; Katalikybė; intelektualai; kooperacija; ekonominė gerovė; socialinės nuostatos.
EN
Catholicism; social justice; Catholic church; intellectuals; cooperation; economic welfare; social attitudes.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje aptariama lietuvių katalikų intelektualų (M. Krupavičiaus, F. Kemėšio, S. Šultės, J. Staugaičio, J. Dabušio ir kt.) puoselėta kooperacijos samprata. Parodoma, kad katalikų intelektualai aktyviai atsiliepė į popiežiaus Leono XIII enciklikoje "Rerum novarum" dėstytas nuostatas ir raginimą ieškoti būdų, kaip apsaugoti labiausiai socialiai pažeidžiamus sluoksnius agresyvaus liberaliojo kapitalizmo įsivyravimo įvairiose gyvenimo srityse akivaizdoje. Remdamiesi Vakarų Europos socialinės katalikybės atstovų įžvalgomis ir veiklos pavyzdžiu, lietuviai kooperaciją pirmiausia laikė priemone išnaudojimui sumažinti, pristabdyti ekonominio liberalizmo sukeltam egoistinio individualizmo įsigalėjimui žmonių tarpusavio santykiuose, nes tai neišvengiamai didino socialinę įtampą visuomenėje, kuria visaip stengėsi pasinaudoti vietiniai socialiniai radikalai (bolševikai). Kartu joje jie įžvelgė priemonę "pripratinti" prie nuosavybės turėjimo ir valdymo jos neturintį žmogų (valstietį ir darbininką), sudarant jam sąlygas laisva valia tapti bendruoju savininku (kooperatyvo ar įmonės akcininku) ir kartu pagrindžiant šį nuosavybės valdymą krikščionišku požiūriu. Atskleidžiami kunigų dalyvavimo kooperaciniame judėjime motyvai, jų puoselėtos kooperatyvų plėtotės kryptys. [Iš leidinio]

ENIn the article one shows that catholic intellectuals of the beginning of XX century (S. Suite, J. Staugaitis, M. Krupavičius, F. Kemėšis, J. Dabusis, etc. receptived the new social ideals, but they evaluated them critically and didn't consider any social economic system to be absolute, the best and unique. Neither liberal capitalism, emphasizing the importance of private ownership and personal freedom and in fact refuting the Christian not in of obligation to society and individual, nor socialism, sacrificing the society for realization of its own fictitious mesianistic ideas, won a particular sympathy with them, they thought that in the making of social, economic and political life Lithuania should rest on the ideas of Christian democracy. They did not related Lithuanian economical and social rebirth with one social class (estate) as Bolsheviks did. Their attitude was that all estates are equally important and necessary for the society. Hence they looked for such an economic mechanism that would combine the relationship of producers and consumers and would include their social and economical operation. According to them, the most reliable way to economic democracy, which can assure economical wealth, unity and social security to the society and an individual, is through cooperation. Cooperation for Catholics first of all was the means to decrease exhaustion, to slow down egoistic individualism caused by economic liberalism and established in interrelationship, because this inevitably increased social tension in the society and Bolsheviks tried to use it.On the other hand, they saw a means to "adjust" society to property, people who had never had it (peasant, worker) and create conditions for him/her to freely become a co-owner (a shareholder of a cooperative or company) and to justify this control of property from the Christian viewpoint. Adjusting cooperative movement and actively participating in it, Catholics destroyed the myth of local Bolsheviks that the Catholic Church does not take care of workpeople. On Catholics initiative cooperatives, consumer and credit units were created and despite all difficulties and failures it helped to protect the interest of consumers, for farmers to get rid of foreign economic dependence and to look for new farming forms. Cooperatives developed curiosity, diligence, economical thinking, and made assumptions for political democracy. Reasonably one may state that they were the medium where a Lithuanian person was raised as an independent economical subject that was ready to work and to be responsible for his/her actions: he/she developed a new attitude towards property and work ethic, so it is small wonder that when Lithuania gained its independence and despite all dramatic consequences of World War I, during a relatively short time it was able to restore and develop its economy during interwar. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-7450; 2335-8785
Related Publications:
Katalikų iniciatyva: pirmieji sociologiniai tyrimai Lietuvoje (1912 m. anketinė vartotojų kooperatyvų apklausa) / Valdas Pruskus. Lietuvių katalikų mokslo akademijos metraštis. 2005, t. 26, p. 67-78.
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Updated:
2018-12-20 23:16:21
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