Bažnyčios architektūra

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Bažnyčios architektūra
Alternative Title:
Church of Veliuona and its architecture
In the Book:
Keywords:
LT
Veliuona; Lietuva (Lithuania); Architektūra / Architecture; Religinis menas / Religious art.
Summary / Abstract:

LTVeliuonos bažnyčia stovi Nemuno aukštutinėje terasoje, miestelio rytiniame pakraštyje. Pati bažnyčia, šventorius ir kiti kompleksui priklausantys statiniai išsidėstę istorinėje vietoje, senosios medinės pilies vakarinio papilio teritorijoje, kurios reljefas net ir dabar primena šios vietos pirminę gynybinę paskirtį. Į rytus nuo šventoriaus yra jau gerokai užslinkusiu grioviu atskirtas Veliuonos gynybiniam kompleksui priklausantis centrinis papilys. Jame XV-XVIII a. buvo įsikūręs Veliuonos dvaras - Veliuonos seniūnijos administracinis-ūkinis centras. Pietinę teritorijos pusę riboja status Nemuno terasos šlaitas. Vakaruose išsidėstęs Veliuonos miestelis, o jo centrinė, dabar S. Dariaus ir S. Girėno, gatvė remiasi tiesiai į bažnyčios bokštą. Šiaurinėje pusėje yra papilio šlaitas, jo apačioje seniau telkšojo tvenkinys, už jo buvo klebonijai priklausiusio palivarko pastatai. Dar labiau į šiaurę, už kelio, vedančio iš apatinės Nemuno terasos į miestelį, yra XIX a. I p. statyti Zaleskių dvaro rūmai ir juos supantis parkas. Dabartinė bažnyčia - trečioji katalikų šventovė Veliuonoje. Pirmosios dvi medinės bažnyčios buvo pastatytos Lietuvos didžiojo kunigaikščio Vytauto XV a. pr. Kada pastatyta pirmoji bažnyčia, tiesioginių liudijimų nėra. Viename iš XIX a. dokumentų tuometis Veliuonos klebonas Marcijonas Giedraitis nurodė, kad tai įvyko 1414 m. Šią datą galima laikyti gana tikslia, nes po Žemaitijos krikšto (tiksliau, kai jos elitas ir dalis gyventojų buvo pakrikštyta), įvykusio 1413 m. rudenį, šiame krašte buvo pradėtos statyti pirmosios bažnyčios. Iki 1417 m., kai pradėta kurti Žemaičių vyskupija, turėjo atsirasti pradinis jų tinklas. Bažnyčia Veliuonoje buvo tarp pačių seniausių šventovių. [Iš straipsnio, p. 62]

ENThe current church in Veliuona is the third Catholic church in Veliuona. The first church was built probably in 1414 and was one of the first churches erected immediately after the Christianisation of Samogitia in 1413. The second church in Veliuona was built in 1418 when Samogitians, who did not support Christianisation, burned down the first church. Both wooden churches were built by the order and funds of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas. The second church probably stood until the ist half of the 17th century when a brick church, which is currently standing, began to build in 1635. Albrecht Stanislaw Radziwiłł, the Grand Chancellor of Lithuania and Elder of Veliuona, financed the construction works. From 1634 to 1636, he began constructing as many as seven Catholic churches, including two churches of outstanding significance for the entire Baltic-Black Sea region - a collegiate in Olyka (present-day Ukraine) and a church of the Jesuit collegium in Pinsk (present-day Belarus). The church of Veliuona probably was built by builders from Kaunas. However, the name of the bricklayers’ leader (murator, architectus) is unknown. This group of bricklayers built the Most Holy Trinity church of the Bernardines nuns in Kaunas (building started in 1625), a little earlier — the church of Čekiškė between Veliuona and Kaunas, and in 1633-1634, they completely rebuilt the interior and gables of the St. George the Martyr church of Bernardine friars in Kaunas. The church’s construction in Veliuona started in 1635. The masonry works were to be completed circa 1638, and it was consecrated on 10 January 1644. The church was built according to an example of the Holy Trinity church in Kaunas. However, one axis of the building is shorter, and it has a tower in the centre of the western elevation.The church of Veliuona is probably the last building in Lithuania with a distinct Gothic spatial-layout structure and architectural details typical of this style. In addition, it is the last hall church continuing the Gothic tradition. However, the architecture of the church is essentially Mannerist. Its exterior is surrounded by Tuscan pilasters holding an entablature surrounding the building. Inside, there are pillars and pilasters of the Doric order with baccellature ornaments. Inside the church, attention is drawn to the vaults of the presbytery, the decoration of which imitates the Gothic star vault, and a neo-Mannerist organ choir built after 1902 by architect Karl Kunzel from Liepaja. In the 20th century, the architect also designed a neo-Mannerist porch on the northern side of the church tower. At that time, a central portal was set up at the bottom of the church tower, reconstructed by architect Vladas Švipas in 1930. Until then, the church did not have a representative entrance in the western part, and at the top of the current portal was a balcony where ‘tympanums were beaten’. Although the church building has retained its original forms, its tower has undergone as many as three reconstructions. The first reconstruction took place after the destruction of the old tower steeple by a lightning strike in 1688. Then, the tower was raised by one condignation, and a part of the tower’s acoustic openings was bricked over. Another reconstruction took place in 1821. Finally, the current view of the tower was formed in 1930, partially implementing the project of architects Vladas Švipas and Algirdas Šalkauskis. The building has not undergone significant changes since then. [From the publication p. 410-411]

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2023-10-24 14:11:43
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