Archeologinio paveldo apsauga Lietuvoje 1919-1990 m.

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Archeologinio paveldo apsauga Lietuvoje 1919-1990 m
Alternative Title:
Protection of the archaeological heritage in Lithuania between 1919 and 1990
Archeologija / Archaeology; Archeologiniai tyrinėjimai / Archaeological investigations; Kultūros paveldas / Cultural heritage.
Summary / Abstract:

LTArcheologinio paveldo apsaugos sąvoka yra plati, iki šiol nesulaukusi išsamesnių tyrimų. Pirmą kartą straipsnyje aptariama archeologinio paveldo apsaugos raida nuo jos pradžios 1919 m. iki Nepriklausomybės atkūrimo. Būdama sudėtine visos paveldosaugos dalimi, archeologinio paveldo apsauga atskirais raidos etapais išsiskyrė savo pasiekimais ir aprėptimi. Per nagrinėjamus septynis dešimtmečius užfiksuoti du ryškūs ir greiti jos raidos etapai: 1934-1936 m. ir nuo 1967 m. iki maždaug 9-ojo dešimtmečio vidurio. Pirmasis raidos etapas deramo tęstinumo neįgavo, antrasis padėjo pagrindus šiuolaikinei archeologinio paveldo apsaugai Lietuvoje. Reikšminiai žodžiai: archeologinis paveldas, paveldosauga, Lietuva, Valstybės archeologijos komisija, apskaita. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe development of the protection of the archaeological heritage in Lithuania has not been specifically studied. The term ‘archaeological heritage protection’ has a broad meaning. The article examines the development of archaeological heritage protection in Lithuania, through the interplay of its two main components, recording and preservation, revealing and highlighting the main stages in its development. The protection of the archaeological heritage is not possible without lists of objects to be protected. The first lists of archaeological sites in Lithuania appeared in the 1880s (a list of 63 hillforts was compiled by M. Valančius). The best-known lists of the archaeological heritage before the First World War were the archaeological maps of three governorates (Vilnius, Grodno and Kaunas) compiled by F. V. Pokrovskij. They contain information on 3,893 different archaeological sites. The real protection of the archaeological heritage only began in independent Lithuania. The State Archaeological Commission (SAC), which was established in 1919 and existed until 1936, did not do much in this field. A greater impetus was the activities of P. Tarasenka (1892-1962), who served on this commission from 1923, which culminated in the publication of the book ‘Lithuanian Archaeological Material’ in 1928. It marked the end of the initial recording, the first phase in the protection of the archaeological heritage. The establishment of the Ancient Monuments Protection Referenture under the Ministry of Education in January 1934, by Vladas Prysmantas (1895-1960), who was appointed its head, brought about a real revolution in the protection of the archaeological heritage in less than three years.Under his leadership, information on 4,041 objects was gathered from available sources, 48 people were trained in the basics of heritage protection, heritage protection questionnaires and pledges to protect it were created and printed, and a procedure for collecting information about the archaeological heritage on site was established. In conjunction with the central authorities, the questionnaires and pledges were distributed through the district governors to local police officers, who collected the necessary data on the spot and returned the completed forms. The pledges specified what not to do at an archaeological heritage site, including not being allowed to approach it. In this way, by February 1936, 2,527 monuments had been protected. In about 60 cases, due to the threat to their survival, the SAC allowed work to be done on them. When the Vytautas the Great Museum of Culture opened in 1936, the protection of the cultural heritage was legally entrusted to it. The State Archaeological Commission was closed down, and the position of conservator of Lithuanian cultural monuments was created. Heritage protection was to be enshrined in the Law on the Protection of Monuments, which did not exist yet and was still to be created and passed. The archaeological heritage was preserved by excavating archaeological monuments that were threatened with destruction. A draft law on the protection of monuments was drawn up before the first Soviet occupation, and was adopted afterwards, with some modifications, on 20 July 1940. This law established the Office for the Protection of Cultural Monuments in order to protect the heritage, but it achieved little in the protection of the archaeological heritage, due to the consequences of the Second World War.During the initial period of the second Soviet occupation (five decades), monument protection in Lithuania was revived, based on the Soviet system and legislation. At that time, the actual work carried out in the protection of the archaeological heritage remains unexplored. In 1967, the Scientific-Methodical Council for the Protection of Cultural Monuments under the Ministry of Culture began the process of creating a system for the protection of the national heritage. The legal basis for this was the Law on the Protection of Cultural Monuments, adopted the same year. It drew up a list of 3,367 archaeological sites, which was approved in 1972, and began to revise it by making exploratory expeditions and individual site surveys. By 1986, more than too obscure protected sites had been investigated, and 1,073 non-archaeological sites, mostly rural cemeteries, were removed from the list and destroyed. Archaeological sites began to be mapped, with their areas marked on plans from 1980. By 1994, 90 expeditions had surveyed more than 4,000 archaeological sites, many of them more than once. In 1991, the revised list of archaeological monuments consisted of 2,175 sites. The whole system became the basis for the current protection of the archaeological heritage in Lithuania. Keywords: archaeological heritage, heritage protection, Lithuania, State Archaeological Commission, inventories. [From the publication]

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2023-08-16 16:23:10
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