Miesto ir kaimo gyventojų užimtumo raidos skirtumai tikslinių grupių integracijos į darbo rinką galimybių požiūriu

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Miesto ir kaimo gyventojų užimtumo raidos skirtumai tikslinių grupių integracijos į darbo rinką galimybių požiūriu
Alternative Title:
Differences in employment development between urban and rural populations in terms of opportunities for integration of target groups into the labour market
In the Journal:
Lietuvos socialinė raida. 2019, Nr. 9 Socialinių ir etninių mažumų grupių įtrauktis Lietuvoje = Inclusion of social and ethnic minority groups in Lithuania, p. 109-129
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Užimtumas; Darbo rinka; Gyventojų aktyvumas; Miesto gyventojai; Kaimo gyventojai; Integracija; Employment; Labour market; Population activity; Urban population; Rural population; Integration.
Darbas / Labour. Work; Gyventojai / People. Population; Gyventojų aktyvumas; Integracija / Integration; Kaimas. Kaimai / Villages. Country; Miesto gyventojai; Užimtumas / Employment.
Population activity; Rural population; Urban population.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje pateikiami analizės rezultatai ne tik atspindi miesto ir kaimo gyventojų užimtumo skirtumus, bet ir netiesiogiai iliustruoja situacijos darbo rinkoje pokyčius Lietuvos regionuose. Remiantis statistiniais rodikliais, straipsniu siekiama įvertinti miesto ir kaimo tikslinių gyventojų grupių padėties darbo rinkoje (užimtumo) skirtumus ir atskleisti stebimas tendencijas jų integracijos į darbo rinką galimybių požiūriu. Straipsnyje vertinami jaunimo, pagyvenusių žmonių, vyrų ir moterų situacijos darbo rinkoje skirtumai. Atsižvelgiant į žmogiškųjų išteklių trūkumo problemą, analizėje naudojamas aktyvių žmogiškųjų išteklių panaudojimo koeficientas, kuris įvertinamas remiantis Statistikos departamento duomenimis. Didelis dėmesys straipsnyje taip pat skiriamas ir tikslinių demografinių grupių aktyvumo darbo rinkoje bei nedarbo analizei. [Iš leidinio]

ENResults provided in this article not only reflect employment differences between rural and urban population but also indirectly illustrate changes in the labour market across regions in Lithuania. Using statistical indicators, the goal of this article is to evaluate the labour market situation of the target groups from rural and urban populations as well as to reveal observed trends of their integration into the labour market. Employment differences of the youth, elderly, men, and women in the labour market are evaluated. Taking into account the lack of labour force in Lithuania, the analysis uses the coefficient of active human resources utilisation, which is estimated on the basis of data from the Department of Statistics. The article also pays great attention to the analysis of the activity of the target demographic groups in the labour market and unemployment. The performed analysis shows a very high territorial differentiation of employment in urban and rural populations, as well as other labour market indicators in the country. The importance of the problem in question is indicated by, probably, the largest gap in the employment rate between urban and rural populations in Lithuania, compared to the EU in 2019. Particularly high differences in the employment rate in Lithuania also exist at the level of individual target groups. The employment rate between the elderly and women differed the most, with smaller relative differences between men. In 2019 the employment in the city exceeded its corresponding value in the countryside for elderly by 17.8 %, for women by 17.6 %, for men by 12.6 %. Only in the youth age group this relative difference was insignificant.Judging by the country's economic activity and employment indicators during periods of economic upturn, the elderly are the most dynamically growing group in the labour market. Increasing the activity of the elderly largely compensates for the lack of labour resources in the country. However, one of the most important obstacles to the growth of employment of older people in the country is the significant difference of this indicator in urban and rural areas. It is important to note that in terms of changes in the socio-demographic structure of the population, young people are gradually replacing older people in the labour market. However, the importance of the integration of the older population into the labour market, both in the whole country and its regions, is determined by the fact that with the declining number of labour resources in the younger age groups, young people cannot completely replace the elderly. This leads to an accelerating process of aging of labour resources (especially in smaller regions of the country). This way, relatively more older people remain in regional labour markets for a longer time. During the global economic crisis, the unemployment rate of rural youth significantly exceeded the value of this indicator in urban areas. Despite the fact that the observed difference had declined, it has remained high throughout the past decade.Due to the impact of the economic crisis, the normal youth unemployment rate during 2010–2011 reached as much as four-tenths of the workforce. However, it is important to note that, as early as in the second half of the last decade, the demographic youth unemployment rate was already lower than that of the elderly. This shows that the situation is changing in a youth-friendly direction. The highest unemployment rate for men in urban regions was recorded in 2001 (21.6 %) and in rural regions – in 2010 (24,7 %). The trend in the number of unemployed men was similar to the overall unemployment rate, although during periods of economic boom, the number of unemployed men decreased significantly faster than the overall unemployment rate due to the impact of demographic factors in the city. Due to the less affected services sector during the last economic crisis, women were able to keep more jobs than men, and this resulted in lower unemployment of women. During the previous economic upswing, women unemployment rate had traditionally been lower than male unemployment rate, but the observed differences had declined significantly. However, during the crisis periods, the differences in unemployment rates between urban and rural women were very high. [From the publication]

2029-963X; 2424-497X
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2022-04-20 09:19:57
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