Šiuolaikinės prancūzų meno sociologijos metodologinės paieškos (P. Francastelis ir P. Bourdieu)

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Šiuolaikinės prancūzų meno sociologijos metodologinės paieškos (P. Francastelis ir P. Bourdieu)
Alternative Title:
Methodological metamorphoses of modern French sociology of art (P. Francastel and P. Bourdieu)
In the Journal:
Humanistica. 2000, Nr. 2 (8), p. 73-78
Meno komunikacija; Meno sociologija; Metodologinės paieškos; P. Bourdieu; P. Francastel; Pierre Bourdieu; Pierre Francastel; Postmodernistinis menas; Prancūzų meno sociologija; Tarpdisciplininė metodologija; Šiuolaikinė prancūzų meno sociologija.
Art communication; French sociology of art; Interdisciplinary methodology; Methodological Metamorphoses; Modern French Sociology of Art; P. Bourdieu; P. Francastel; Pierre Bourdieu; Pierre Francastel; Postmodern art; Sociology of Art.
Summary / Abstract:

LTIlgame ir sudėtingame menotyros kelyje į šiuolaikinę meno sociologiją įvyko daug metamorfozių, tačiau lig šiol ši mokslo sritis neturi aiškios metodų visumos. Žvelgiant į platų šiuolaikinės prancūzų meno sociologijos tyrimų spektrą, nesunku pastebėti, kokie lankstūs jos metodologiniai principai ir kaita, prisitaikę prie konkrečių tyrinėjimų. "Sociologija" tapo tarsi paantrašte, suteikiančia įvairiems mokslininkų veikalams, dažnai skirtiems vienai ar kelioms meno rūšimis, sociologinį atspalvį ir nurodančia tyrėjo požiūrio kampą. Beje, sociologinis meno tyrimas neretai įsiterpia į įvairias šiuolaikinio meno principų analizes, tai rodo jo aktualumą, kurį didžia dalimi lemia prieštaringa postmodernistinio meno situacija, "meno" sąvokos kitimas, sudėtingos meno komunikacijos ir interpretacijos problemos, globalizacija ir su ja susiję spartūs skirtingų meno tradicijų susipynimo procesai. Straipsnyje bandysiu tarpdisciplininės metodologijos principais apžvelgti meno sociologų P. Francastelio ir P. Bourdieu idėjų lyginamąją analizę. [Iš leidinio]

ENA lot of metamorphoses occurred on the long and complicated way of "social" art criticism to contemporary existence of art sociology. But this sphere of science still doesn’t have clearly defined the whole complex of methods. Knowing that French sociological thought predominates already since the times of enlighteners and ACompte in the field of methodological instrumentation of art theory, in this study the main attention was focused on comparative analysis of ideas of P.Francastel and P.Bourdieu - the most influential modem sociologists of art. Really, turning of modem art criticism to sociological problems and growing urgency of sociological methodology is not accidental or local phenomenon, because tendency towards "sociologization" prevail in social science and the humanities. Sociology of art, which examines experience of life and originality of imagination of artist and society, inevitably resort to varies fields of culture. Analyzing relationship of art and sociocultural elements scientists embrace broad net of phenomena. So art sociology acquire culturological and interdisciplinal character. Diversity of works of art sociology reveals not only specialization of scientists in varies fields of researching different aspects of art sociology, but also in attitudes, those predetermine different methods of researchers. It may be asserted that among these authors whose attention is focused on the field of cognition of sociological aspects, we can exclude those 1) who thing that birth of work of art is complex and universal process which can derive motivations in all spheres of culture, society and art, and those 2) who affirm that artistic form necessary follow the other artistic form. However, looking at variety of works of French art sociology it is expedient to except sociology of creation (sociology of imagination) and sociology of art creators and consumers (artistic activity).The best confirmation of that could be works, methods and results of two symbolic figures in art sociology - P. Francastel and P. Bourdieu. Conceptions of methods of these art sociologists could properly reflect dispersion of ideas in the field of modem art sociology. Explaining methodical possibilities of art sociology P. Francastel first of all stresses importance of exhaustive sociological criticism, which base itself on "symbolical thought" and "imagination problems". It must be admitted that significant evolution in the second half of XIX century of branches of science that investigate imagination, even being under the influence upon other methodic, had grate influence upon formation of methodical instrumentation of modem art sociology. Francastel’s investigation of sociological mechanisms of imagination and thought also is in close connection with his contemporaries' researches (Amheim, E. Cassirer). This confirms that appeared demand for formation principles of stmctural methodic in great number of modem sciences, among which sociology of art is. Also it is clear that one of the basic aims of art sociology is so far as possible wider use methodic approaches of other branches of science: epistemology, mathematics, anthropology, ethnography and of course modem studies of philosophy, history of civilization, literature. In other words, complexity of thought, that E. Morin defined, i.e. so far as possible versatile look at art phenomenon, integration of investigations of different spheres, is characteristic to methodic of art sociology, although such research quite often take the shape of unfinished on not concrete. Strength of Francastel's method of art sociology is that he analysis genesis and dispersion of the artistic forms on the basis of principle of consequent sociological methodology and searching for prototypes of works he discovers matrices of imagination.These matrices show that imagination is a product of the defined culture, and artistic space - permanent instrument of discovering novelties. The other aspect that should be stressed talking about Francastel's and his follower's principles of scientistic art sociology - equivalent standpoint to works of art of contemporary and ancient civilizations. Modem art sociology, that P. Francastel based, investigate system of artistic structure of work, but not search for direct reflection or projection of reality in creation. The artistic system or schema of interpretation reveals individual spiritual values, nature of thought. The material structure of work itself presents the phenomena of reality, and means of expression introduce to phenomena of imagination. Thus modem art sociology that pays attention to immanent art principles avoids superficial empiricism revealing conjunctions of origin of civilization objects. For P. Bourdieu's modem school of sociology characteristic absolutely neglect the limits between branches of science. He supposes that any obstacles limit not only object of analysis but also the method. Therefore in the works of the classic of modem sociology hit it off excellently investigations and conclusions of different fields as anthropology, history, linguistic, polythology, philosophy, esthetics, art critics. Analyzing different spheres, for example art, economy, religion, the scientist discovers in the structures and functioning specific regularity. Bourdieu stresses the importance of identification these original forms, which expresses common concepts and mechanisms. Then touching the art sociology in the works of sociology of culture, author is especially deep immersed in the questions of functioning of types of taste in society, esthetical perception. [...]. [From the publication]

Related Publications:
Pierre‘as Bourdieu ir socialiniai meno žaidimai / Žilvinė Gaižutytė-Filipavičienė. Vilnius : Kultūros, filosofijos ir meno institutas, 2005. 352 p.
2020-12-17 20:23:19
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