Nepriklausomybės Akto signataras Jonas Smilgevičius

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knyga / Book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Nepriklausomybės Akto signataras Jonas Smilgevičius
Alternative Title:
Signatory of the Act of Independence Jonas Smilgevičius
Publication Data:
Vilnius : Lietuvos nacionalinis muziejus, 2019
Pages:
119 p.
Series:
Iš Lietuvos nacionalinio muziejaus archyvo; 24
Notes:
Bibliografija; asmenvardžių ir vietovardžių rodyklės.
Contents:
Įvadas — Smilgevičiai ir Užventis — Liepojos ir Mintaujos gimnazijos — Studijos Vokietijoje — Jono Smilgevičiaus publicistika. Kęstaičių bažnyčios likimas ; "Reportažai" iš Žemaitijos ; Apie latvius — Įmonių steigėjas ir valdytojas. Varšuva, įmonė "Alfa-Nobel" ; Pienininkystė ; Bendrovė "Vilija" ; Akcinė bendrovė "Nemunas" ("Neris") ; Kitos bendrovės ; Lietuvos kredito bankas — Politinė veikla. Lietuvių konferencijos Organizaciniame komitete ; Lietuvių konferencijoje ; Lietuvos Taryboje — Gyvenimo saulėlydis Užventyje — Signataras istorinėje atmintyje — Pabaigos žodis — Svarbiausios Jono Smilgevičiaus gyvenimo datos — Jono Smilgevičiaus tekstų bibliografija — Šaltinių ir literatūros sąrašas — Santrumpos — Santrauka — Summary — Asmenvardžių rodyklė — Vietovardžių rodyklė.
Keywords:
LT
Jonas Smilgevičius; Signatarai; Vasario 16 Aktas; Valstybės veikėjai; Politiniai veikėjai; Agronomai; Pramonininkai; Bankininkai; Biografijos; Lietuvos Respublika, 1918-1940
EN
Jonas Smilgevičius; Signatories; Act of 16 February; Statesmen; Politicians; Agronomists; Industrialists; Bankers; Biographies; Republic of Lithuania, 1918-1940
Reviews:
Summary / Abstract:

LTVisiems žinoma, kad 1918 metų vasario 16 dieną Lietuvos Tarybos nutarimą dėl Lietuvos nepriklausomybės paskelbimo pasirašė dvidešimt jos narių. Ne vien dėl šio fakto, bet ir dėl įvairiapusės veiklos nacionalinio atgimimo baruose labiausiai žinomi yra signatarai Jonas Basanavičius, Antanas Smetona, Jonas Vileišis ir Mykolas Biržiška. Be to, jie yra žinomi kaip "plunksnos darbininkai", - kaip ir Petras Klimas, Pranas Dovydaitis, Jurgis Šaulys ir kai kurie kiti. Tačiau ne visi žmonės yra talentingi rašytojai ar mokslininkai; kiti turi ne mažiau, o kartais net labiau visuomenei naudingą "verslo gyslelę". Tokie buvo signatarai Jonas Vailokaitis ir Jonas Smilgevičius. Lietuvos valstybės ūkio pažanga be šių pragmatiškų žmonių sunkiai įsivaizduojama. Signataro Jono Smilgevičiaus biografija iki šiol nebuvo sulaukusi istorikų dėmesio. Pirmasis jo biografijos faktus visuomenei pristatė Aleksandras Merkelis 1938 metais "Lietuvos Aide" paskelbtame straipsnyje, pagal kurį parengtas straipsnis ir 1963 metais Bostone išleistoje "Lietuvių enciklopedijoje"1. Jis ne tik tapo pagrindu daugeliui signataro biografinių apžvalgų, bet kartu įvedė į apyvartą reikšmingą ir nuolat kartojamą netikslumą, jog signataras Jonas Smilgevičius esąs ekonomistas, baigęs studijas Berlyno universitete. Šis teiginys nėra teisingas, nes signataras įgijo kitą specialybę ir kitoje Alma mater. Klaidingą teiginį kartoja ir nedidelis straipsnelis 1976 metais anglų kalba išleistoje lietuvių išeivių enciklopedijoje "Encyclopedia Lituanica"2, ir nedidelė biograma atkurtos nepriklausomos Lietuvos Respublikos gyvavimo pradžioje Žemaičių kultūros draugijos laikraščio "A mon sakaa?" parengtame leidinyje "Žemaitija: įvykiai, žmonės, likimai"3 . Naujausiose publikacijose taip pat pasitaiko netikslumų. [...] [Iš Įvado]

ENThe Act of Independence of Lithuania proclaimed by the Council of Lithuania on 16 February 1918 was signed by twenty members of the Council. The most prominent of them were Jonas Basanavičius, Antanas Smetona, Jonas Vileišis and Mykolas Biržiška through their many diverse activities in the field of national revival. They worked with pen, while some other signatories had a "business streak", which was not less (sometimes even more) useful to society. They were Saliamonas Banaitis, Jonas Smilgevičius and Jonas Vailokaitis. The economic progress of the Lithuanian state would be hardly imaginable without them. Jonas Smilgevičius could be described as a down-to-earth and pragmatic person, almost fitting in the concept used by the 19th century British economist John Stuart Mill homo economicus meaning a perfectly rational individual seeking to receive the best possible result or profit with the most efficient means. Yet, there is a significant difference - Smilgevičius sought benefit and profit not only for himself and his family, but also for the Lithuanian nation and, later, state. He was educated in the best schools of higher education in Germany. He studied agronomy, a discipline that could be practically applied to improve the agriculture and industry of his homeland. Thanks to his professional expertise and efforts, the Užventis estate boasting a rich history became an exemplary, multi-functional operation. Besides the traditional branches of agriculture, Smilgevičius initiated and cultivated new ones and encouraged other farmers to do the same. The Užventis estate was a miniature model of Lithuanian economy.Several articles by the signatory-to-be, published in 1894-1895 in the newspapers Vienybė lietuvininkų and Ūkininkas, show his concern for Lithuanian entrepreneurship; in the brochures of the Alfa-Nobel company published in Warsaw, he insisted on developing Lithuanian economy with a focus on milk industry; his admiration for the leaders of Latvian national revival that he expressed in the Virpąs newspaper betrays Smilgevičius' nationalist views. In his articles, he drew attention to the plight of Lithuanians in the Russian empire, the arbitrary behaviour of officials and problems of business development; he also gave practical tips on running a farm and overviewed the situation of Lithuanian business in Žemaitija. With these brochures he earned himself a reputation of an expert and pioneer of milk industry in the Russian Empire. Smilgevičius returned from Warsaw when Lithuania needed him the most - to save the only Lithuanian company in Vilnius. The mission was successful - the Vilija joint-stock company gradually became a efficiendy operating enterprise whose production was in demand in all Russia. One can assert that Smilgevičius' industrial activity pardy achieved its goals. The Nemunas joint-stock company was the most successful of all the companies that he founded - it expanded the range of its products and exported them outside Lithuania. The company's board authorised Smilgevičius to solve complicated management problems related to mergers or occupational frauds. While Lithuania was occupied by Keiser s Germany, Smilgevičius' social activity gradually became political, but it remained inseparable from his concerns for the country’s economic and social problems. In the meetings of the Council of Lithuania, his voice was seldom heard, but he was trusted, and was often involved in the activity of important delegations and committees.Smilgevičius worked on the committees of the Council of Lithuania together with colleagues of different ideological views (K. Bizauskas, P. Klimas, V. Mironas, S. Narutavičius, J. Staugaitis, A. Stulginskis, J. Šernas, J. Vailokaitis, J. Vileišis). He did not belong to any political party, but his strong personal links with Basanavičius and Smetona show his closeness to the nationalists. At the outbreak of World War I, when Lithuania (then a region of the Russian Empire) was occupied by the German army, Smilgevičius was preoccupied with the issue of ongoing requisitions and constantly raised it at the meetings of the Council of Lithuania. He became a member of the Council as an active organiser of the Lithuanian Conference from the Kuršėnai district. During twenty years of independence, Smilgevičius was distinguished as a particularly active and ingenious businessman. He created a well-functioning interrelated system - he founded companies and took part in their management, developed various branches of industry, mostly agriculture, andfoundeda bank to finance their activity. This activity significantly stimulated Lithuania’s economic development. Companies founded and/or managed by Smilgevičius - Nemunas, Neris, Dubysa, Miškas, Mazgas, Ringuva and others - were the first in Lithuania to start developing such branches of industry as production of agricultural equipment, wood industry, oil production and wool textile industry. The activity of these companies was subsidized by the Credit Bank founded by Smilgevičius. Smilgevičius put the Užventis farm on a firm footing. It was on this farm, in the years of World War II, that his grandson Vitalis heard his grandfather’s calm and optimistic words that Lithuania would be independent anyway. Today, the farm bears the signs of the signatory’s memory. [From the publication]

ISBN:
9786094780349
Permalink:
https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/86790
Updated:
2020-08-10 19:02:58
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