Ankstyvoji scholastika: ugdymo filosofijos metmenys

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knyga / Book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Ankstyvoji scholastika: ugdymo filosofijos metmenys
Alternative Title:
Early Scholasticism: a sketch of an educational philosophy
Publication Data:
Vilnius : Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto leidykla, 2010.
Pages:
396 p
Notes:
Bibliografija; dalykų ir vardų rodyklės.
Contents:
I dalis. Ankstyvosios scho lastinės kultūros bruožai. 1 skyrius. Socialinė-kultūrinė sankloda ; 2 skyrius. Krikščioniškoji riterystė ; 3 skyrius. Miestai ir krikščionių bendruomenės ; 4 skyrius. Menai ir mokslinė mintis ; 5 skyrius. Scholastika ugdymo institucijose ; 6 skyrius. Scholastinės psichologijos bruožai — II dalis. Dialektikos menas. 1 skyrius. Dialektikos ribų plėtra ; 2 skyrius. Beko vienuolyno mokykla ; 3 skyrius. Beko mokyklos dialektikas Anzelmas Kenterberietis. 3.1. Logikos pradmenų traktatas "De grammatico" ; 3.2. Vardai ir žodžiai ; 3.3. Vardažodžių prasmės ir rūšys ; 3.4. Didaktinis dialogas ; 3.5. Teiginių logika ; 3.6. Supratimo ieškantis tikėjimas ; 3.7. Ontologinis Dievo buvimo įrodymas. 4 skyrius. Dialektikas Petras Abelaras ; 4.1. Pirmoji viduramžių autobiografija ; 4.2. Epistolinis žanras viduramžių kultūroje ; 4.3. Logika arba argumentavimo mokslas ; 4.4. Ginčas dėl universalijų ; 4.5. Etika — III dalis. Spekuliatyvioji mistika. 1 skyrius. Mistikos fenomenas ; 2 skyrius. Antidialektikas Petras Damianas ; 2.1. Traktatas Apie Dievo visagalybę ; 2.2. Dvasinis išganymas ir filosofija ; 3 skyrius. Bernardas Klervietis. 3.1. Apologija - laikinumo maištas prieš amžinybę ; 3.2. Valios laisvės koncepcija ; 3.3. Kristaus kariaunos pašlovinimas ; 3.4. Bernardo Klerviečio ir Petro Abelaro konfliktas — IV dalis. Sholastinė teologija. 1 skyrius. Teologinė dialektikos ir mistikos sintezė ; 2 skyrius. Šv. Viktoro vienuolyno mokykla ; 3 skyrius. Hugonas Senviktorietis. 3.1. Septynios pamokymo knygos arba Didascalicon ; 3.2. Meditacijos slėpiniai ; 4 skyrius. Petras Lombardas. 4.1. Mokymo stilius ; 4.2. Traktatai ; 4.3. Sentencijos ; 4.4. Kūrimo koncepcija —V dalis. Neoplatoniškoji teologija ir filosofija. 1 skyrius. Šartro mokyklos humanistinės idėjos ; 2 skyrius. Gilbertas Porietis. 2.1. Ekvivokacijos fenomenas ; 2.2. Prigimties dimensijos ; 3 skyrius. Jonas Solsberietis. 3.1. Politinė filosofija ; 3.2. Filosofijos istorija — VI dalis. Arabų filosofija. 1 skyrius. Islamo kultūros plėtra ; 2 skyrius. Avicenna (Ibn Sina) ; 2.1. Sielos anatomija ; 2.2. Mąstymas - intelektinė sielos veikla ; 2.3. Lotyniškasis avicenizmas ; 3 skyrius. Averrojus (Ibn Rušdas). 3.1. Arabiškasis Ibn Rušdo peripatetizmas ; 3.2. Filosofija ir religija ; 3.3. Pasaulio amžinumas ; 3.4. Pirmasis judintojas ; 3.5. Intelekto vienovė ; 3.7. Averrojaus šiuolaikiškumas — VII dalis. Žydų filosofijos ir ugdymo ypatumai. 1 skyrius. Žydų filosofijos raida ; 2 skyrius. Saliamonas Ibn Gabirolis. 2.1. Neoplatonizuotas aristotelizmas ; 2.2. Gyvenimo šaltinio versmė ; 2.3. Fons vitae komentarai viduramžiais ; 3 skyrius. Mošė Maimonidas. 3.1. Vadovas pasimetusiems ; 3.2. Maimonido aristotelizmas ; 3.3. Filosofai, pranašai ir elgesio taisyklės ; 3.4. Etikos traktatas Shemonah Peraqim ; 3.5. Etika kaip sielos gydytoja — Post scriptum — Santrauka anglų kalba. Early Scholasticism: A Sketch of an Educational Philosophy — Bibliografinė rodyklė — Dalykų rodyklė — Vardų rodyklė.
Keywords:
LT
Scholastika, dialektika, mistika, teologija, ugdymas.
EN
Scholasticism, Dialectics, Misticism, Theology, Education.
Summary / Abstract:

LTMonografijoje atskleidžiamas ankstyvosios scholastikos filosofinių idėjų perimamumas bei scholastinio mokymo vaidmuo, ugdant lotyniškai mąstantį viduramžių intelektualą. Ankstyvosios scholastikos filosofija suskirstyta chronologiškai pagal ugdymo institucijų ir teologinių-filosofinių koncepcijų tipus. Monografija skiriama visiems studijuojantiems filosofiją, kultūros istoriją ir besidomintiems asmenybės dvasinio tobulėjimo procesu. [Anotacija knygoje]

ENThe monograph "Early Scholasticism: A Sketch of an Educational Philosophy" analyzes early scholastic culture, its socio-political structure, the entrenchment of scholasticism in educational institutions and the rise of psychological introspection. The events of the 11th and 12th century greatly influenced the future development of Western Europe by their energetic socio-economical, political and cultural dynamism. The sciences and the arts of early scholasticism modified people's approach to the world by uniting the past with the present. Scholastic European culture based human life on the divine law. Following Christian tradition, thinkers re-examined human nature, natural law and moral precepts. The Church Fathers laid the foundations of the medieval schools and universities and encouraged the gothic style in architecture, sculpture, painting, and stained-glass. Gothic art masterpieces; they supported Christian morality, expressed the aesthetics of luminosity and stimulated the discussion concerning universals. This cultural formation of personal identity helped to interpret and to express European identity. In the first part of the monograph, medieval scholastic culture is analyzed. That culture inherited mentality, traditions, customs and ways of life from the Carolingian Empire. When the great imperial conquests came to an end and the empire started to disintegrate, the regime of seigniorage was gradually established in Western Europe. The development of agriculture strengthened the peasantry economically and brought about changes in rural life. The colonization of Eastern European countries by the Crusaders spread German juridical norms and new economical and cultural structures to that area. By promising proprietorship, the Church and secular rulers encouraged people to move to conquered countries in the East.During Investiture Crisis everything was done to remove the Church from Imperial control, from this position striving for political power, Church authorities began reforms in ecclesial institutions. The reforms introduced a new understanding of communal life, new economical, social and political relations and encouraged the growth of towns. From 11th century onward, the Church propagated the idea of sacred war against an expanding and eulogized knights as God's warriors. Wars invigorated trade and crafts and, consequently, the growth of towns in Western Europe. The development of urban culture created favourable social environment for the arts and sciences. The number of intellectuals increased. The Church was especially interested in the educational functions of religious arts. Their main purpose was to direct all human thoughts and sensations towards salvation and to the beatific vision as the final end of life. In the 12th century, the Holy See significantly encouraged the establishment of cathedral, monastic, and church schools for the education of priests as well as laymen. Those schools became the centers of intellectual life. The scholastic way of thinking generated the symbolical and allegorical Weltanschauung characteristic of the Medieval Ages and prepared for the Renaissance by cultivating a mentality oriented towards psychological introspection. In the second part of the monograph, the art of dialectics is analyzed. This art has its beginnings in early scholastic culture, especially in the school of Bee. It had become popular because of deep changes in social life caused by the new approach to the traditional system of inequality and privileges. These changes increased the social demand for educated men. Underlying the importance of dialectics, educational institutions modified the programs of the triviutn and quadrivium.Therefore dialectics was gradually established in the cathedral as well as in the urban schools. It appeared as the first philosophical discipline with relative independence from theology. It was based on Boethius's logical treatises and commentaries as well as on Latin translations of Aristotle's Categories. Dialectics was also useful for jurisprudence. Theologians accepted it as a method for the grammatical, logical, and semantic analyses of Holy Writ. The development of dialectics was significantly boosted the Monastery School of Bee in Normandy, newly instituted in 1035 by knight Bec-Hellouin (994-1078). The school flourished, in particular under the headship of Lanfranc of Pavia (1005/10-1089) who had taken up a key positions in 1045. The arts of rhetoric, grammar and dialectics based on the ideas of Aristotle and Boethius were studied there in association with divinity studies. Soon the school had become famous. In 1059, Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109) joined it as a disciple of Lanfranc. Later he was to become famous as the leading metaphysician of 11th century and was nicknamed the Father of Scholasticism and the Second Augustine. His important treatises: De grammatico, Monologion, Proslogion, De verdate, De libertate arbitrii, De casu diaboli, were written during his work at the Monastery School of Bee. The treatise on the elements of semantic logic, De grammatico, was the main didactic means of intellectual training in the early medieval schools. In it, Anselm applied Aristotle's Categories and Priscian's Grammar to the analysis of the term grammaticus. He indicated and explicated its double - substantival and adjectival - function and discovered the semantic gap between accidental terms and their properties. Scholastic semantics based the concept of meaning on the analysis of names and terms not taking into account the meaning of propositions. [...]. [From the publication]

ISBN:
9789955205760
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2020-12-09 19:01:33
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