Instrumentinė muzika kaip kultūrinės regioninės atminties raiška

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Instrumentinė muzika kaip kultūrinės regioninės atminties raiška
Alternative Title:
Instrumental music as an expression of regional cultural memory
Homo narrans: folklorinė atmintis iš arti / mokslinė redaktorė Bronė Stundžienė Vilnius: Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas, 2012. P. 371-392, 512.
Instrumentinė muzika; Laidotuvių papročiai; Lietuviški giesmynai; Šermenų giedotojai; Atminties refleksijos
Instrumental music; Funeral customs; Lithuanian hymns; Funeral singers; Memory reflections
Summary / Abstract:

ENThe ethnic instrumental music, just as the verbal folklore expressions, also carries along significant cultural information influencing the identity of the population inhabiting certain localities. Among the most important components of Samogitian ethnic cultural identity, the especially archaic and distinctive funeral customs can be pointed out. These customs include performance of particular traditional hymns of the Samogitian Calvary, called "Kalnai" ("Hills"), which are still performed as late as the beginning of the 21st century, and playing of the brass instruments. The roots of the "Kalnai" hymns performance at the Samogitian funerals should be sought in the history of the first Lithuanian Calvary, or Stations of the Cross, established in 1639 in Gardai Town, later re-named as the Samogitian Calvary. This place has supposedly been visited in great number s ever since its establishment: entire parishes used to travel to the wakes loudly, carrying ample religious attributes, i. e. banners, small altars, trumpets, drums, etc. In 1681 , a Lithuanian prayer book and hymnal by Dominican Jurgis Kasakauskis was published, designed for the use of pilgrims arriving to the Samogitian Calvary. One can only guess when it was started to sing Kalnai at funerals. This could have been related to the funeral fraternities, established in the 17th century by the Society of Jesus and the nursinghome s for the elderly and poor, established by the parish churches. The inhabitants o f these nursing-home s could well have spread catholic hymns across the countryside, since they used to sing and pray together with villagers while walking around and collecting alms. Woode n trumpets were used to perform at funerals as early as the second half of the 16th century. The existence of such tradition is certified also by the written source s from the first half of the 19th century.According to the available historical data, the brass bands, appearance of which was greatly promoted by the schools and orchestras of the Rietavas and Plungė courts, belonging to the family of the Duke Oginskis, were for the first time encountered at the Samogitian funerals in the very beginning of the 20th century. Before the WWII , the brass bands used to perform only at the funerals of rich and special people. During Soviet times, it became especially popular to invite small brass bands to perform at funerals. For the Party members, the funeral marches used to be played, while for the Catholics, hymns of the Samogitian Calvary Hills ("Kalnai") used to be performed. As it became customary to bury every deceased along with the music of the brass instruments, even the second band appeared in many villages. During the period of national revival and after the regained independenc e in the end of 20th century, the tendency of the bands getting more professional can be noted: in order to earn more, the bands used to be made smaller (shrinking from 7-5 to 4 persons), and the musicians would take over singing as well (earlier singing of Kalnai was the duty and privilege of the village community). In the beginning of the 21st century, the tradition of funeral music-making is altering significantly: instead of the brass bands consisting of 5-6 musicians, singing and playing in threesomes is getting increasingly frequent, to the accompaniment of the electric organ. Along with the shift of generations taking place, and due to the great impact of the mass-media, the aesthetic demands of the population o f the Samogitian towns and villagers also change, including the style of the loud singing ("so that lamps would fade out") and blowing the brass ("for everybody to hear") being replaced by the mor e subtle manner of performanc e ("sweet music"). [From the publication]

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2020-05-23 23:14:12
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