Sapno pasakojimas kaip folklorinis naratyvas

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Sapno pasakojimas kaip folklorinis naratyvas
Alternative Title:
Dream telling as folk narrative
Homo narrans: folklorinė atmintis iš arti / mokslinė redaktorė Bronė Stundžienė Vilnius: Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas, 2012. P. 178-217, 502-504.
Sapnai; Sapno pasakojimas; Sapnų pasakojimo folkloriniai naratyvai
Dreams; Dreams telling; Folklore narratives of dream storytelling
Summary / Abstract:

ENThere is hardly a cultural phenomenon subject to scholarly attention that could overtake dreams in terms of variety of disciplines that display continuous interest in it, namely, religious studies, psychology, medicine, anthropology, philosophy, cultural studies, sociology, folkloristics, literature, cinema, theater, art... Here, the stories of dreams are approached as folk narratives and as representatives of folk memory. Two kinds of sources are dealt with: part of the texts come from the old Lithuanian folklore recordings from the 19th century, and another (much greater and more relevant) part comprises detailed oneiric narratives recorded in the course of approximately ten recent years, during the folklore fieldwork sessions from informants roughly from 70 to 100 years of age; the number of such narratives accumulated in the Lithuanian Folklore Archives housed at the Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore, as well as in other folklore repositories and publications has currently reached several hundreds. The absolute majority of dream researchers from various spheres have long ago recognized the dream to be a private psychic experience which is impossible to record at the moment of its occurring; while the dream narrative is a public social performance, readily available to the researcher. For investigator of culture, especially of the folk culture, the oneiric narrative is primarily interesting as a phenomenon manifesting the traditional thinking and the social attitude. This is generally what separates the research interests of folklorists from those of psychologists, who display exceptional interest in dreams, yet approach the dream narratives primarily as reflections of certain inner individual experiences and as particularly handy means for therapy. The research here focuses on several important aspects of dreams as folk narratives.The most significant among them is considering the folk narratives of dreams as particularly creative fragments of both the autobiographical and the more general social meta-history of the community, expressed by homo narrans and affecting the human life in a large measure, as a singular oneiric line of a life story. Also, the ambivalent relationship between the dream narratives, as personally important stories, rendering the individual experiences by way of employing the traditionally inherited folkloric canon, and the verbal or written dreamreaders - i. e. examples of oneiric criticism, embodying short indices of interpretations of stereotypical dream images, is analyzed. As an inherent part of this research, some insights related to peculiarities of recording the dream narratives during fieldwork and possible impact of this situation on the recorded materials should be considered as well; also, the problems connected with looking for an optimal way to present the dream narrative texts in the research works and to introduce their contexts, are discussed here. In the 19t h century (i. e. when recording of the dream narratives first took place in Lithuanian folkloristics) dreams were subjected to interest as mysterious and strange, perhaps prophetic "messages" of different character, as testimonies of fabulous and shattering experiences, as forms of expression of the human religious life, and at the same time, as simply impressive stories. The dream narratives belonged to the sphere of interests of religion and folklore.In the 19th century, especially in its second half, the number of various oneiric research works kept rapidly increasing, while psychoanalytical studies of dreams by Sigmund Freud, published in the very beginning of the 20l h century and the numerous works by his followers and opponents that immediately followed, turned dreams into a subject of almost exclusively psychological interest for long decades afterwards. However, in the second half of the 20th century the idea of the recorders dreams being almost as significant as those of the informants' during the conducted fieldwork was raised and developed with increasing frequency in various anthropological contexts. A separate trend of the dream research was formed, combining methodological approaches of social anthropology, psychoanalysis and psychological anthropology. Against such a background, a particularly relevant question may be asked regarding the arising danger for the researcher, while indulging in investigations of his / her own dreams, of completely losing sight of the informant as a dialogical partner (or even renouncing the informant altogether), or more precisely, of turning the informant solely into a "co-author" of the invented methodology of the dream research, a peculiar medium, a dream interpreter, who only deserves attention as far as he / she aids the visiting researcher to puzzle out his / her inner world. In the dream narratives that complement the autobiographical life stories by the elderly people and frequently even turn into their leitmotifs, constantly the same most significant categories show up, or the same vital moments of existence, supported and continued by the whole centuries-long folk tradition. Birth, marriage and family life, and death - these are the special life events or stages that the most vivid dream narratives are involved with. [...] [Extract, p. 502-504]

2020-05-22 22:04:31
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