"Apsimetinėjo banditais": kriminalinių gaujų mimezės 1945–1957 metais Lietuvoje analizė

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
"Apsimetinėjo banditais": kriminalinių gaujų mimezės 1945–1957 metais Lietuvoje analizė
Alternative Title:
“Imitating bandits”: the mimesis of criminal groups in Soviet Lithuania (1945–1957)
In the Journal:
Lietuvos istorijos studijos [LIS] [Studies of Lithuania's History]. 2019, t. 43, p. 71-90
Notes:
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Lietuvos SSR; Pokaris; Laisvės kovos; Kriminalinis banditizmas; RSFSR 1926 m. Baudžiamasis kodeksas; Lietuvos SSR Aukščiausiasis Teismas; Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic; Post-war period; Lithuanian freedom struggle; Criminal banditry; RSFSR Criminal Code of 1926; Supreme Court of the Lithuanian SSR.
Keywords:
LT
20 amžius. 1944-1990; Kriminalinis banditizmas; Laisvės kovos; Lietuvos SSR; Lietuvos SSR Aukščiausiasis Teismas; Pokaris; RSFSR 1926 m. Baudžiamasis kodeksas.
EN
Criminal banditry; Lithuanian freedom struggle; Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic; Post-war period; RSFSR Criminal Code of 1926; Supreme Court of the Lithuanian SSR.
Summary / Abstract:

LTPokariu Lietuvos SSR Aukščiausiasis Teismas nagrinėjo 44 baudžiamąsias bylas, kuriose už „banditizmą“ buvo teisiami asmenys, apsimetinėję Lietuvos partizanais arba įvairių sovietinių struktūrų atstovais. Straipsnyje analizuojamas šis reiškinys – nagrinėjama termino „banditas“ problematika sovietiniame diskurse, baudžiamosiose bylose užfiksuoti banditų mimezės atvejai, galimas tikrasis šio reiškinio paplitimas sovietų okupuotoje Lietuvoje. 21 banditų grupė apsimetinėjo partizanais ir 27 banditų grupės apsimetinėjo sovietinės valdžios atstovais (4 banditų grupės apsimetinėjo ir partizanais, ir sovietais). Dažnesnį banditų apsimetinėjimą sovietais galima paaiškinti partizanų keršto baime, tuo, kad nusikaltėliai yra iš kitų sovietinių respublikų (kurie nemoka lietuvių kalbos) ir paprastesne mimeze: apsimesti prasta drausme ir plėšikavimu garsėjusiais stribais pokariu buvo lengviau nei partizanais. [Iš leidinio]

ENDuring the 1940s–1950s, the Supreme Court of the Lithuanian SSR solved 44 criminal cases of “banditry” (Article 59 part 3 of RSFSR Criminal Code of 1926) with some noticeable facts of mimesis: these bandits, during their raids, were trying to create an illusion to their victims that these raids were performed by Lithuanian partisans (freedom fighters) or by some Soviet oficials (militia officers, the “defenders of the People,” or Soviet army personnel). This article focuses on the mimesis of various criminal groups in Soviet Lithuania of the 1940s–1950s. The first issue to solve in this research is the problematic terminology used by the Soviets: the term bandit was oftenly used in Soviet ideological discourse: an attempt to intertwine anti-Soviet partisan operations (“political banditry,” according to Soviet terminology) and the activities of “simple criminals” (burglars, raiders, rapists, murderers – any of such organized groups were referred to as “criminal bandits” by Soviet terms) under a single dubious term – the banditry.An analysis of criminal raids performed by fake partisan (or fake Soviet) bandit groups showed that criminals were more often inclinded to appear as if they were Soviets rather than partisans (21 bandit group used the mimesis of partisans, and 27 bandit groups used the mimesis of Soviets, while there were also 4 bandit groups that used both roles: fake partisans during one raid and fake Soviets during another). This can be explained by the bandits’ avoidance of becoming the targets of partisan revenge or by a large number of various criminals that migrated to Soviet Lithuania from the eastern republics of the Soviet Union. It may also be explained in terms of simpler imitation: for these criminals, it was more difficult to imitate Lithuanian partisans than Soviet militia. The real widespread effect of this phenomenon cannot be easily revealed. As there several few different types of courts (Soviet military courts, the “People’s” courts) that could solve the criminal cases of various criminal bandits, it is not even possible to give a real number of all mimetic bandits that were active in Soviet Lithuania. Also, not every raid case was documented by the Soviet side; not every raid case was even reported to the Soviets. Sometimes, Lithuanian partisans used to catch and punish these criminals themselves – all these circumstances makes the task of stating the real number of bandit groups who used various mimesis techniques an unsolvable one. [From the publication]

DOI:
10.15388/LIS.2019.43.4
ISSN:
1392-0448; 1648-9101
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Permalink:
https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/80645
Updated:
2019-12-02 10:08:50
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