Денежное обращение в Литве в 1914-1922 гг.

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Rusų kalba / Russian
Денежное обращение в Литве в 1914-1922 гг
Alternative Title:
Monetary circulation in Lithuania per 1914-1922
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Apyvarta 1914-1922 m; Pinigai; Pinigų apyvarta (1914-1922); Lithuania; Monetary circulation (1914-1922); Money; Turnover in 1914-1922.
Apyvarta 1914-1922 m; Numizmatika / Numismatics; Pinigai. Valiuta / Money. Currency.
Monetary circulation (1914-1922); Turnover in 1914-1922.
Summary / Abstract:

ENThe chronological scope covers the period from the beginning of World War I, when Lithuania was part of the Russian Empire and was part of the money economy metropolis, to the 1922 when the independent Lithuania was introduced its own currency - the Litas. Dynamically developing political life in the Europe per 1914-1922 has cardinally affected history of Lithuania and its economy. There was a historical opportunity of creation of the national state which has been realized on February, 16th, 1918. Aspiration to independence is closely connected with financial processes. Changes in a monetary economy had territorial features. Especially it is marked in east part of Lithuania where changes of authority occurred especially often. Revealed the hoards material allows to confirm, that in the beginning of war the territory of Lithuania has not been strongly devastated by evacuation, especially in comparison with a neighbor territory as region of Grodna (now Belarus) where hoards the given period practically is notpresent. At the same time their presence, especially concentration of finds at Vilnius and region, speaks about human losses in 1915-1920. The money complexes of various sort in structure of which is present money of a various material illustrates hoarding process as well as enables shortage in circulation of small change to carry to second half 1916-1917. Besides confirms the idea stated by the Lithuanian researchers on constant presence of coins in the monetary market in a flesh up to the end of war, that, putting under doubt the statement which has settled in a historiography about their disappearance from the circulation.The main monetary issues which have had especially influenced the market, were currency denominated in kopeck and roubles (1916, Posen) and notes of marks (1918, Kaunas) issued by Ober-Ost (Supreme Commander of All German Forces in the East) "Darlehnskasse", one of which overall objectives was prompting favorable to Germany Reich bank order in the ratio of rouble and the mark, partially achieved only by the end of war. The important event in the further financial politics of the young country was declaration ostmark as an official Lithuanian currency under the name Auksinas and Skatikas in 1919, before introduction of national currency Litas and Centas on October, 2nd, 1922. Constantly demanded currency in money circulation by the population in a flesh up to 1921 remained official money of the Lithuanian Republic rouble of Russian empire. On its new issues by Russian Provisional (Временное) and Soviet the governments really did not turn the attention the population, not distinguishing them from imperial issues, that, by the way, is inherent also in the modern museum workers processing with finds of roubles of the „imperial" sample. Tens names of the moneys was on hands at the population, their constantly varying structure, rates and the price, are not feature of Lithuania 1914-1922, it is inherent as well in other territories captured by the First world war, especially it was in a zone of active military actions, with streams of refugees and emigrants. As singularity should be regarded relatively small and the not prevalence of local editions of money. Revealed new facts about local money require further research. [From the publication]

2020-07-09 21:11:26
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