Особенности органостроения в Литве в конце XIX - начале XX века : мастера и инструменты

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Rusų kalba / Russian
Особенности органостроения в Литве в конце XIX - начале XX века: мастера и инструменты
Alternative Title:
Peculiarities of Lithuanian organ-building craft at the end of the 19th century - the first half of the 20th century: masters of producing organs and instruments
Kaunas. Kauno kraštas (Kaunas region); Vaškai; Lietuva (Lithuania); Muzika / Music; Romantizmas / Romanticism.
Summary / Abstract:

LTReikšminiai žodžiai: Ankstyvasis ir vėlyvasis Romantizmas; Lietuviškų vargonų gamyba; Lietuvos vargonų statymo menas; Nepriklausoma rankinio valdymo sistema; Romantinė vargonininkavimo tradicija; Romantizmo vargonų dispozicija; Specifiniai romantizmo balsai; Vargonavimo tradicija Romantizmo epochoje; Art of the Lithuanian organ building; Early and late Romanticism; Independent system of manual; Romantic organ disposition; Romantic organ tradition; Specific Romantic voices; The art of the Lithuanian organ building.

ENInstruments produced by the most famous Lithuanian organ builders at the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century Juozapas Radavičius (1835?-1908?), Martynas Masalskis (1858-1954) and Jonas Garalevičius (1871-1943) integrate the traditions of the era of Western European Romantic organ-building craft: eight feet registers prevail in disposition of independent system of manuals, specific Romantic voices. Instruments produced by the most famous Lithuanian organ builder Juozapas Radavičius are characterized specific Romantic Gambe, Clarinetto, Cornet voices. A typical feature of early Romanticism organ-building craft is the principle of orchestrally separated voices in manuals: the first one is dominated by principal voices (Principal 16ķ, Principal 8ķ, Octava 4ķ), the second one - by the voices of flutes (Gemshorn 8ķ, Flutharmonie 8ķ, Flauto dolce 8ķ, Flauto dolce 4ķ, Gedacktflӧte 4ķ, Flautine 2ķ), the third one - by the voices of string instruments (Viola major 16ķ, Geigen principal 8ķ, Viola dķamour 8ķ, Geigen principal 4ķ, Viola 4ķ). The influence of the late Romanticism in organs produced by this master is obvious in adaptation of pneumatic system while controlling tractures of keyboards and registers with the help of barkers. Organ in Kaunas Cathedral Basilica restored by Juozapas Radavičius with the French style reed register choir is an apparent example of the organ-building art at the beginning of the 19th century not only in the country but also in the context of European organ-building art. Martynas Masalskis used Aliquot voices (Rauschquinte 2 2/3, in Pumpėnai); it was an exceptional feature in Lithuanian organ-building craft - in pedal keyboard (Nasard 10 2/3, in Vaškai).Uncomplicated constructions, typical Romantic eight feet voices that dominated in the dispositions of mechanical organs produced by Martynas Masalskis and quiet gambe registers characterize a specific era of Romanticism of Lithuanian organ-building craft. Jonas Garalevičius produced small, mechanical organs of chamber nature that were distinguished by Romantic sound and which had two manuals. They did not exceed 10-15 voices and were distinctive by soft, mild sounds imitating string instrument timbres (Geigenprincipal 8ķ, Viola di gamba 8ķ, Violoncello 8ķ, Violonbass 16ķ). These organs evidently illustrate orchestral organ-building craft era in Lithuania at the end of the 19th century - first half of the 20th century. The tendency to remake antique Baroque instruments to the Romantic ones, which was distinct in Lithuanian organ building at the end of the 19th century - the first half of the 20th century, formed a specific tradition in Lithuanian organ building which had a wide spectrum of aesthetic organ stylistics. However the outside (Neo-Gothic, Neo-Baroque organ facades) and inside (Romantic organ) construction did not have stylistic consistency. The historical organ value was distinctively appreciated by Juozapas Radavičius who often left the authentic organ facades. Register tones of the organ that imitated orchestral string and wind instruments produced by Lithuanian masters were softer and thus closer to the voice of a person and choral sound. [From the publication]

2018-06-20 23:59:33
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