Didžiosios Armijos belaisviai Vilniaus gubernijoje 1812-1813 metais

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Didžiosios Armijos belaisviai Vilniaus gubernijoje 1812-1813 metais
Alternative Title:
Prisoners of Grand Army in Vilnius governorate in 1812-1813
In the Journal:
Karo archyvas. 2017, 32, p. 7-25, 373-376
20 amžius; Kaunas. Kauno kraštas (Kaunas region); Klaipėda. Klaipėdos kraštas (Klaipeda region); Prancūzija (France); Vilnius. Vilniaus kraštas (Vilnius region); Lietuva (Lithuania); Rusija (Россия; Russia; Russia; Rossija; Rusijos Federacija; Rossijskaja Federacija).
Summary / Abstract:

ENDecisions of the Government of the Russian Empire regarding the fate of 25000 prisoners of the Grand Army in Vilnius governorate were caused by some exceptional circumstances. First, most of the officers and soldiers of the Grand Army were captured in Vilnius and Kaunas as the main forces were retreating through these cities, and most of the prisoners exhausted after a long and tiring march from Russia balanced on the threshold between life and death. Second, due to unfavourable winter weather, disease outbreaks, limited possibilities of Russian military and civilian authorities to ensure elementary living conditions, at least one third of all those captured died. Third, the decision of the Russian authorities to remove the prisoners of the Grand Army from Vilnius governorate was caused by two main reasons: first, by the political reason; during the war the Lithuanian population showed obvious favour to France, so the prisoners hoped for support of all kinds, but this could destabilize the situation in the country, especially since the military actions moved outside the Russian Empire; second, by a more practical reason; Vilnius governorate was a long border area, and this encouraged the captives to try to escape from here, in particular, therefore it would be difficult to maintain and control the captives there. Due to bureaucratic procedures and poor financial possibilities of the Russian authorities, the transfer of captives, the number of which was very large, to the depth of the country and their release lasted until the end of 1813.Groups of prisoners accompanied by supervisors travelled from Vilnius to Minsk, Moscow, Tver, Vologda, Riga, Daugavpils, Jelgava, Memel (Klaipeda), and St. Petersburg. Officers and soldiers of the units of the Duchy of Warsaw were moved to Siberia and the Caucasus. Most prisoners of the Grand Army (about 2000) were transferred from Lithuanian provinces to the construction of the Daugavpils fortress. After the release of the Prussian captives, who travelled in small groups from Vilnius to Riga in the spring, Bavarians and prisoners from other German cities and lands (Saxony, Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland unions) that became allies of the Russian Empire, were also released in the autumn. Spanish and Portuguese (1 army officer and 67 soldiers) travelled home together with the Prussian captives; however, in most cases their route stretched to Memel, sometimes – to St. Petersburg, after transfer to the Spanish envoy. However, another fate awaited the representatives of other German lands, such as some Baden citizens – they were transferred to the depths of Russia – Tambov City. The life of high-ranking officers, colonels and generals in captivity was not restricted very much, in addition, they could expect to be released soon, especially those who found patrons who had relations with the house of the Russian Emperor. Usually they were sent from Vilnius to St. Petersburg. [From the publication]

1392-6489; 2424-6123
2018-12-17 14:14:54
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