Lietuvių liaudies daina JAV: nuo pasilinksminimų iki tyrinėjimų

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvių liaudies daina JAV: nuo pasilinksminimų iki tyrinėjimų
Alternative Title:
Lithuanian folk song in the USA: from entertainment to the investigations
In the Journal:
Lietuvos muzikologija [Lithuanian Musicology]. 2003, 4, p. 87-94
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Etnomuzikologija; JAV; Liaudies dainos; Lietuviai; Lietuvis; Pasilinksminimai, tyrimai; Entertainment; Ethnomusicology; Folk song; Lithuanian; Lithuanians; Researches; USA.
Etninė muzika. Liaudies muzika / Folk music. Ethnomusic; Liaudies dainos. Dainuojamoji tautosaka / Folk songs. Singing folklore; Lietuviai / Lithuanians; Lietuvis; Pasilinksminimai, tyrimai; Paveldas / Heritage.
Entertainment; Folk song; Lithuanians; Researches.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnio tikslas yra aptarti, kokią reikšmę lietuviai teikė liaudies dainai, kaip jie ją naudojo savo kasdieniniame gyvenime – pradedant pramoginiais renginiais ir baigiant dainų rinkimu, jų tyrinėjimu ir publikavimu. Darbo objektas – liaudies dainų tekstų ir melodijų rinkiniai, etnomuzikologiniai straipsniai, plokštelės, publikuoti bei leisti JAV iki 1990 metų. Metodai: istorinė archyvinių šaltinių ir muzikologinės literatūros analizė, etnomuzikologinių darbų chronologinis ir žanrinis tyrimas bei lyginimas. [Iš leidinio]

EN[…] The first Lithuanian emigrants took with them national musical instruments which provided them with an opportunity to play music and not to forget their homeland. Those instruments were used at various entertainments to accompany folk songs which had become the basis of preservation of national traditions and their inseparable part. However, the arising fear of the loss of national identity forced Lithuanians to preserve their songs. With this aim in mind they chose the following means: 1) to publish the texts of folk songs in Lithuanian newspapers and in special collections; 2) to harmonize folk songs and make them the basis of the repertoire for Lithuanian concerts. In those days the conditions in the USA for the development of Lithuanian culture and popularization of folk songs were better than in Lithuania where a strict ban of Lithuanian alphabet was in force aimed at eradication of the Lithuanian language. The most popular collections of songs were those compiled in 1889–1915. […] At the beginning of the 20th century, due to the efforts of church organists and choir leaders, publishing of folk songs melodies was started. […] The published songs were not authentic but mainly harmonized. This fact testifies that in this period the Lithuanian songs were important not as a special musical, cultural or scientific object, but mostly as a means to keep Lithuanian community together and to preserve their national identity. Systematic and consecutive collection and analysis of folk songs started in the USA after World War II thanks to the ethnomusicologist Juozas Žilevičius and the ethnologists Jonas Balys and Juozas Būga. Juozas Žilevičius urged his countrymen to collect folk songs and preserve them in the musicological archives which were established by himself.He argued that later this musical treasure could be analyzed in various forms. Juozas Žilevičius, however, did not receive many supporters. The greatest enthusiast in this field was Jonas Balys who worked at Bloomington University and co-operated with American ethnologists. In the period of 1949–1951 Jonas Balys traveled in various States and recorded folk songs performed by the first and second generation of Lithuanian emigrants with the help of a phonograph. Jonas Balys demonstrated the collected materials at Bloomington University during his lectures and later he used the songs in the series of the books "Lithuanian Folklore Treasury": "Wedding of the Suvalki People" in 1953, "Lithuanian Songs in America" 1958 and 1977. The books contained 1288 texts of songs. In the first two books the melodies of the national songs were also published (1st book – 14, 2nd book – 250). Composer Vladas Jakubėnas was the decipherer of the melodies. Jonas Balys was disappointed that his books were not popular amongst Lithuanians. The records of Lithuanian folk songs prepared by Jonas Balys in 1950 were far more popular. The enthusiastic follower was Juozas Būga who collected 4000 songs in the USA, and who contributed to the preservation of the Lithuanian musical heritage in emigration. It is obvious that collection and research of folk songs was not very popular amongst Lithuanians. The countrymen did not value authentic songs, but preferred harmonized folk songs which helped them to preserve their national identity. The authentic songs were used mainly for education. Only a few Lithuanians were interested in the ethnomusicological aspect and those were supported by American scholars. [From the publication]

Related Publications:
Lietuvių etnomuzikologijos pradininkas / Danutė Petrauskaitė. Darbai ir dienos. 2001, t. 25, p. 217-229.
2018-12-17 11:14:08
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