Tapybos palikimas

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Tapybos palikimas
Alternative Title:
Painting heritage of the church of Veliuona
In the Book:
Keywords:
LT
Veliuona; Lietuva (Lithuania); Religinis menas / Religious art; Tapyba / Painting; Religinis menas / Religious art.
Summary / Abstract:

LTVeliuonos bažnyčioje išliko daug vertingų skirtingų laikotarpių paveikslų, sukurtų XVII-XX a. Archyviniuose dokumentuose randame žinių ne tiktai apie juos, bet ir apie sunykusius atvaizdus. Nurodyti paveikslų pavadinimai, konkreti jų buvimo vieta, žinios apie brolijas, atlaidus leidžia iš dalies atkurti Švč. Mergelės Marijos, Jėzaus Kristaus ir atskirų šventųjų gerbimo tradicijų kontūrus, jų kaitą. 1635 m. generalinėje vizitacijoje išvardyti devyni paveikslai. Dalis skirta Švč. Mergelei Marijai pašlovinti - didelis įrėmintas Marijos paveikslas kabojo priešais zakristiją (antes fores Sacristise), kitas - prie Didžiojo altoriaus, trečias Švč. Mergelės Marijos Ėmimo į dangų (Assumptionis) atvaizdas buvęs prie Švč. Mergelės Marijos altoriaus. Paraleliai skleidėsi ir Jėzaus Kristaus tema - bažnyčioje buvo altorius su Kristaus Kančios (Passionis Christi) atvaizdu, taip pat „paprastos tapybos“ Jėzaus paveikslas „prie mažojo altoriaus“ ir dar vienas, vaizdavęs Jėzų Širdyje (P. Jezusa w serai) sušv. Pranciškumi [Asyžiečiu]. Galime manyti, kad ankstyvas ir retas „Jėzaus širdyje“ atvaizdas buvo XVI a. II p.-XVII a. I p. Europoje vienuolių skleidžiamo adoratyvaus maldingumo Cor Deo devotum ikonografijos, plitusios per šio siužeto grafinius atspaudus. Bažnyčioje buvo šventųjų Jurgio, Kazimiero, Stanislovo su Kazimieru, Pranciškaus [Asyžiečio] ir Baltramiejaus paveikslai. Dokumente pažymėta, kad visi atvaizdai įrėminti. Ankstyvieji kūriniai neišliko, bet užsimezgę Marijos, Kenčiančio Jėzaus, šv. Pranciškaus Asyžiečio ir šv. Kazimiero kultai nenutrūkstamai ar su pertraukomis pasiekė mūsų laikus. [Iš straipsnio, p. 158]

ENThe surviving archival sources testify to the extremely rich and varied collection of images in the Veliuona Church. To date, there is only a small but artistically very valuable part of paintings from the middle of the 17th century to the first part of the last century. The earliest work is a portrait of Jan Kazimierz Brzostowski from 1648. According to the custom of that time, this image could adorn the coffin’s head during the funeral and was later installed in an epitaph from 1650-1655 dedicated to him. From 1703, below the epitaph ofj. K. Brzostowski, the altar of the Sufferingjesus is mentioned with a canvas painting Christi Domini Epinis Coronati. In the third quarter of the 18th century, silver and gold casings covered the Instruments of the Passion in the image. The professional with Flemish artistic features painting of the Passion of Christ was framed in an ornately carved re-table, which structurally complemented and enriched the epitaph monument of J. K. Brzostowski with religious content. The Blessed Virgin Mary was especially venerated in the church of Veliuona from ancient times. The brick church consecrated in 1644 had three altars dedicated to Virgin Mary. However, the old paintings have not survived. The most important representation of the Blessed Virgin Mary that has reached our days is the altarpiece of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Rosary’s Fraternity, mentioned in 1703. The fraternity took care of the purchase of this superb Baroque work and its decorations. Supposedly, the fraternity’s benefactor Kazimierz Chrzczonowicz may have contributed. The altarpiece was adorned with two gilded crowns. The crowns, details of the casings, and ex-votos — Salzburg thalers of the 17th century, skilfully integrated into the picture like medallions of Rosary casings, survived. This work has been renovated several times.In 1743 with the erection of a new (current) fraternity’s altar, the altarpiece was slightly trimmed and fitted into the carved frames of the Regence style. Presumably for the celebrations of the official recognition of the Holy Rosary Fraternity (1 June 1746), or a little later, the clothes of Mary and Child were covered with silver, in places with gilded casings, repoussed with floral and rocaille ornaments. In the 1750S-1770S, some (out of nine) side and pillar-mounted altars were decorated with new altarpieces by the painter Jan Kunicki, who worked in the Samogitian diocese. Unfortunately, only a single image of St John the Evangelist has survived in the second condignation of the altar of St John of Nepomuk, while the other two altarpieces of St Anthony of Padua and St Barbara are seen in photos of 1939. In the 19th century, priest Marcyan Giedroyc (prepositor in 1836-1884) enriched the church of Veliuona with topical paintings. The themes of the paintings, the chosen saints and secular figures reflected the religious intentions and patriotic mindedness of this influential clergyman. The aesthetic taste manifested in professional works reflected the spirit of the time. He purchased the altarpiece of Saint Casimir, King of Lithuania (1841), the portrait of Vytautas (i860) from the painter Maciej Buczynski, who worked in Kaunas, and in 1872, ordered from Tadas Zilinskis, who lived in Kretinga, a cycle of the Way of the Cross and an image of St Helena. The most important work of this period is the famous altarpiece of St Joseph (1864) by the renowned representative of Romanticism Michal Elwiro Andriolli (1836-1893). Circumstances for creating this painting should be mentioned - the artist painted it after the uprising in 1863 while hiding in the Zaleski manor in Veliuona.During the First World War, the church of Veliuona, altars and paintings were severely damaged. In preparation for the 500th anniversary of the Veliuona church, the priest commissioned altarpieces from the artist Petras Kalpokas (1880-1945), who had returned from Italy and stayed in Veliuona. In 1920, he created altarpieces of the Holy Trinity, St John of Nepomuk, St Mary Magdalene, St Anthony of Padua, small representations of Veil of Veronica and the Divine Providence, and in 1921, an image of St Tekla and renewed altarpiece of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in the high altar and other images. The paintings of P. Kalpokas belong to the mature period of his creation. Due to their peculiar iconographic motifs, modern and individual artistic expression, they are considered epoch-making examples of the last century’s interwar professional church art. In the 1930s, the church acquired the altarpiece of St George (1939), the patron of Lithuania, by the artist Bronius Saliamoras, who lived in Kaunas and an image of St Francis of Assisi by an unknown artist. In 1958, during the Soviet period, the artist of Veliuona Valentinas Gerulaitis painted the current images according to the old cycle of the Way of the Cross (the 12th station was only renovated). In 1966, the arch of triumph was adorned with a composition of the Pentecost. In 1991, an artist Vytautas Žilius painted a portrait of Antanas Juška, the famous folklorist and priest, who preached in Veliuona. In 2019, the church’s interior was restored - fragments of the illusory painted pillar altars, the old (1644?) and the 19th-century crosses of the consecration on the walls were exposed. Some of the images mentioned above belong to the Lithuanian elite painting fund. [...]. [From the publication p. 414-416]

Permalink:
https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/104853
Updated:
2023-10-24 14:33:35
Metrics:
Views: 19
Export: